issue of use of the mother tongue in EFL classroom has witnessed debate on whether
it should be used or isolated. In fact it has been accepted as a taboo by teachers who supports the idea of ”
English – only ” for many years. Kahraman (2009 ) says that in spite of the
new inclinations about language teaching and learning over the course of
twentieth century, incorrect presumptions survived deep-rooted in terms of teaching
English in EFL classrooms with the idea of ” English-Only” and the help of native speaker who is accepted as
a optimal teacher of English.
From this point of view, some second or forign
language teachers are accepted as the supporters of the Monolingual Approach
and Bilingual Approach.If a teacher prefer using target language without any
mother languages’ word ,this is called Monolingual Approach and it only permits
using target language with four skills. On the contrary, ?f a teacher has doubts
of using mother tongue or use it very judiciously and logically , thsi is
called ” Bilingual Approach”. There are monolingual learners who are
experiencing learning a new language for the first time, and there are
bilingual learners who have experienced learning a new language once before.
Teachers should be armed with both the knowledge and skill to be able to manage
such heterogenic classrooms. Bilingual learners usually come from different
cultural and ethnic backgrounds as compared to monolingual learners and thus may
need different teaching methods, different tasks, different class activities
and even different assignments.
believes that teachers should assess their students’ strategy use. She adds
that strategy assessment can lead to greater understanding of learning
strategies employed by language learners and better management of teaching
activities. In this vein,
Dujmoviç (2007) asserts that to provide a language learning ,learners should be exposed to the target language with the
help of mother language in terms of getting a succesful production.
states that necessity of the use of mother tongue is very cruial for prosperous
language acquisition to get a comprehensible input in the ways of beginners. Turnbull ( 2001) asserts that in foreign or
secon language classrooms, learners’ mother tongue and target language sholud
be used synchronically to provide language acquisition by parsimoniously in
terms of time management. Willis (1996) takes a consideration to the learners’ managing
communicative function to pronounce the words. She argues that to see more productions
of the target language , a permission about using of mother tongue should be
given the learners to provide acquisition of the second or foreign language.
On the other
hand , Hitotuzi ( 2006) advises that use of mother tongue should be taken
consideration , judicious and limited usage of mother tongue should be allowed
in terms of production of the target language. Auerbach (1993 ) , Cook (2001 )
and other researchers state that common and undifferentiated use of mother
tongue should not be given permission
and limited and logical use of mother language is advised in foreign / second
A lot of studies have been conducted to investigate the attributions and perceptions towards L1
use in the classroom. Since the debate about L1 use in foreign language classes
has gained great attention, research studies regarding L1 use in second and
foreign language classes are abound in literature.
In his first
research , Prodromou (2002 ) studied with 300 Greek learners to analyse the attributions
of the students with different proficiency levels. The results demonsrated that
the students of the advanced levels reacted to use of mother tongue but another
students had a positive attitude towards use of mother tongue. Duimovic ( 2007
) investigated the perceptions of his students and his findings was based on
the use of mother tongue in target language contexts with a positive attitude.
Schweers (1999) made a research to explore teachers’
and learners’ perspectives towards use of L1 in target language classes.He found
out that 88,7 % of the students ,who were the speakers of Spanish , prefered
using mother tongue with the idea of using mother tongue facilitating learning
Juarez and Oxbrow (2008 ) investigated the role of
mother tongue use and paid great attention to the translation activities in the
classrooms’ target language context.Theu believed that translation activities
helped learners to facilitate target language learning.
Gabrielotos ( 2001) conducted a study by observing
teachers to see the students’ willingness to communicate with the target
language.Most of the students asked questions to the teacher with mother tongue
, traslated all the words in turkish contexts and they were in the condition of
Sal? (2014) tried to find out teachers’ point of view
on the use of L1. The findings explored that academic functions of L1 use
outnumbered the other major functions of L1. One of the most frequently expressed
reasons of L1 use was providing explanations.
In the same vein, Paker?aç (2015) found that
on the purpose of clarifying difficult concepts, aims of the rapport-building
and making the word or toppic explicit ,mother tongue was used largely by the
instructors. Yata?anbaba and Y?ld?r?m (2015) investigated Turkish language
teachers? L1 use and found that all the teachers used L1 to diversifying contents
in their classrooms. The results demonsrated that use of the mother language
was accepted as a useful tool to provide language acquisiton.Nevertheless
teachers made a mention of not to exchange L1 for L2 .
study, Sar?çoban (2010) investigated
both the attitudes of university students towards using L1 and why, when, how
much the target language should be used.His results indicated that bulky of the
students had optimistic attributions through using Turkish in foreign language