1. perseverance in nature and animals body tissue.

 1.     
 INTRODUCTION:1.1 Definition of
pesticide: A chemical or biological substance, intended to
eradicate the growth of pests that destruction or affect the growth of crops,
shrubs, trees, and other flora desired by human beings, is called pesticide.
Basically all synthetic pesticides, however, are toxins and posture long
duration hazards to the environment and human beings through their perseverance
in nature and animals body tissue. Pesticides
are two types:A)   Bio-pesticides
are type of pesticides derived from natural materials like plants, bacteria, and
minerals (ICAR, 2009). B)    Synthetic
pesticides are type of pesticides derived from chemicals, are as follows: Organophosphate and Carbamate
Pesticides effect on the insect’s nervous system by
disrupting the enzyme that regulates acetylcholine, a neuro-transmitter.
Organophosphates developed in the early 19th century, while their effects are
similar on insects and human beings. Some organophosphates very poisonous (used
in World war II as nerve agents). Though, they commonly are not persistent in
the atmosphere. Organochlorine Insecticides like DDT and chlordane were
universally used in the earlier days, but now days these have been removed from
the market because of health and environmental hazards effects and their
persistence. While Pyrethroid Pesticides
were prepared chrysanthemum plants naturally. While some synthetic pyrethroids
are lethal to the nervous system of pests (U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency, 2012).1.2
Chemical pesticides:In the mid -1930s
to 1950s chemical pesticides intensely discoveries of major classes of synthetic pesticides like
carbamates, pyrethroids, organophosphates, and organochlorines are more
concentrations seriously beyond those required for control the target organism,
consequently the insect resistance power increased along with hazards effects
on humans, other non-targeted animals, atmospheric and water pollution (Guyot,
1994). WHO (The World Health Organization) estimates every year 200,000 people
are killed globally due to chemical pesticide poisoning (CAPE, 2009). Moreover
the utilization of synthetic chemicals has been restricted because of
carcinogenic, teratogenic and revealed high and acute residual toxicity. They
all imbalance the hormonal secretion and show spermatotoxicity, long
degradation period which caused in toxic residues in nutrition (Feng and Zheng,
2007; Pretty, 2009; Dubey et al., 2011; Khater, 2011). Later many
chemicals pesticides banned, more than 60 pesticides like, like, Endosulfan,
DDT, endrin, Methyl Bromide, Monocrotophos, Diazinon, Sodium Cyanide, Methyl
Parathion were used by Indian formers. Continuous greater utilization of all
chemical pesticides many agricultural pests have developed resistance towards
the synthetic chemical pesticides, such as pyrethroids, carbomates, organophosphates
and chlorinated hydrocarbons (Wu et al., 1984; Ramakrishnan et al.,
1984; Zhou, 1984; Armes et al., 1997; Kranthi et al., 2001, 2002;
Shi et al., 2003). About 2.5 million tons of conventional pesticides
used crops every year can cause worldwide destruction due to high toxicity and
non-biodegradability of pesticides, causing pollution or continued on the crop
surfaces distressing ecosystem and public well-being. Conventional chemical
pesticides, chemical fertilizers, seed and plants growth have been implicated
in polluting the soils and watercourses. They have affected ample disruption to
the ecosystems and have directed to biodiversity loss (Van Balen et al.,
2006). The unsystematic and
severe uses of toxic synthetic and broad
spectrum pesticides resulted
in the resurgence effects
on primary and secondary pest occurrences, increased
resistance power, insecticidal residue, lethal effects and health hazards on
humans and also damaged
environment and agriculture (Pimental et al.,
1992, Royand Mukhopadhyay 2010).  And it
also has reduced habitat loss of
micro- and macro flora and fauna of soil
and has also entered into the food chain thereby affecting all living beings (Edwards
and Thompson 1973; Tripathi and Sharma 2005; Frampton et al., 2006; Bezchlebova et
al., 2007). A synthetic pesticides effect ends with adverse effects and
harmful impacts on non-targeted animals, environmental pollution and ecological
imbalance (Zadoks and Waibel, 1999, Rao et
a l., 2005). The serve use of synthetic pesticides led
to several problems directed to unexpected at the time of their outline: acute
and chronic poisoning of applicators, farm-workers, and even users; destruction
of fish, birds, and other wildlife; distraction of natural biological control
and pollination; wide-ranging groundwater contamination, hypothetically
threatening human and environmental health; and the development of resistance
to pesticides in pest populations (National Research Council 2000). About 98% of insecticides were sprayed and
95% of herbicides range a destination other than their target species,
including non-target species. Pesticides are meant to regulate destructive
pests such as insects, nematodes, weeds, diseases etc.Though,
extreme use of  synthetic pesticides
leave residues in water ,soil and air then again  have adverse effects on the non-target
animals such as parasitoids, predators, pollinators and wild faunas. This all
adversely affected the ecological balance causing pest species, development of
resistance and environmental pollution.In the
present scenario, the world and Indian population is growing rapidly. To feed
this fast rising population, there is a quick need to produce large amount of
food product. Meanwhile, there is a huge loss of agricultural crops, and food
grains due to the damage of insect pests in the field as well as in the
storeroom condition. Since India has
rich bio-diversity regions, it helps to prepare and use at local levels on
commercial lines (Chari et al, 1991).
It demands eco-friendly alternatives are immediately
required (Parmar, 1993). Whereas the adverse effects of synthetic pesticide
effects has provided the incentive for the progress of bio-pesticides
(botanical pesticides) may be one best alternative to control insect pests and
harmful effects of chemical pesticides. The Inorganic chemical insecticides had
been used mostly to control A. janata,
but the progressively this is becoming challenging due to development of
resistance power in the insects. Consequently, in current years there is
increased prominence on developing more effective yet sustainable and
environmental safer approaches of pest control (Schnepf and Crickmore, 1988).For years, researchers have been studying
the defensive appliances that plants use against different enemies, the variety
of defensive responses, and the evolution and ecological impact of those
responses (Johnson 2011; Karban 2001; Hare 2011); Kessler 2011; Dicke 2010).
From last 45 years the scientific literature described hundreds of secondary
metabolites isolated from different plants and they show good toxic effect to
pests in laboratory Bioassay (Dev et.al.,
1997). 1.3
Botanicals as substitute pesticides:In observation of the numerous drawbacks
related with the haphazard use of chemical pesticides in agricultural crops, there
is a crucial necessity for reduce the use of chemical pesticides in the
controlling of different insect pests (Khater, 2012).The
plant kingdom is well recognized supreme resourceful producer of chemical
compounds, synthesizing many compounds that are used to defend plants against
different pests (Isman and Akhtar, 2007). The India is one of the earliest
country in the world for using biopesticides. “Certain types of pesticides
derived from such natural materials such as plants, bacteria, animals, and certain
minerals are called as Biopesticides” (US Environmental Protection Agency
Pesticides, 2008). The biopesticides are categorized as botanical pesticides,
microbial pesticides, zooid pesticides and genetically modified plants.
Nevertheless most bio-pesticides had the benefit for non-target biological
protection (Khater, 2012). From Ancients day’s botanicals have been used crude
fumigants to overcome nuisance mosquitoes and later on oil formulations applied
to skin was first recorded in ancient Greek, Roman and Indian scholars (Maia
and Moore, 2011). Till 1940 pesticides derived from plant,
botanicals were replaced by synthetic pesticides as they were easier to handle
and lasted longer. After 1940 chemical pesticides adopted to use the DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane),
followed by organophosphate and carbamate pesticides (Nicholson
GM (2007).
Due to their hazards side effects there is an alternative method
is required safeguard the ecosystem and agricultural land.As plants synthesis diverse group of
secondary metabolites to defend themselves against herbivores and pathogens,
some of which have been used traditionally for pest management. Whereas plants
are sessile, cannot escape from threat in the way that animals do, they are not
fully unprotected. Plants have diverse forms of protection, alternating from
structural characters (Agrawal 2011) and blocks (Hanley et al., 2007) to physiological (Carmona et al., 2011) and chemical
protective mechanisms (Mithofer et al., 2012).
The botanical are good in insecticides, deterrents, and repellents as insect
control agents (Isman et al., 2006). While Secondary compounds of plants
are having specific position as they can be used as medicines (Halberstein
2005), beverage-flavoring agents and food, fragrances, textile dyes, hygiene
products (Balick, 1996) and disease and pest management tools (Isman, 2000).
Plants produce a wide variety of chemicals to defend themselves and also
against biotic or abiotic stressors (Holopainen,  Loreto, 2010) but also to connect with other
plants (Kegge, 2009) and organisms (Dicke, et
al., 1993).While topical applications caused in
abnormal growth of the pest larvae (Usha Rani et al., 2008). Isman et
al., 2006 stated the botanical insecticides, repellents, and deterrents as insect
control agents. While plant based pesticides helps to prevent the removal of
thousands of tons of pesticides on the earth surface.as they are safer
because they are easily biodegradable break down into harmless compounds within
less time span in the presence of sunlight.The plant kingdom is the most efficient
chemical factory.
More than 2,000 plant species are known to possess some insecticidal properties
(Klocke, 1989). Botanical products are one of the
most well-known alternatives for pest control in present and future necessities
(National Research Council, 2000). They are very effective in controlling the insect- pest
because they possess antifeedant, repellant, knock down, broad spectrum
properties, biodegradable, less hazardous, reduce insect resistance power and
maintain balanced bio-diversity of insect-pest (Olaifa et al.,
1987; Stoll, 1988).  Bio pesticides offer
powerful tools to create a new generation of sustainable agriculture products.
They are the most likely alternatives to some of the most problematic chemical
pesticides currently in use. The growing awareness of the hazards of excessive use of pesticides
globally has led researchers to search for safer and more environment friendly
alternative methods for insect pest control. Therefore, extensive studies are
carried out to screen plants as insect growth control agents. Over the last two
to three decades, greater attention has been focused on the bioactivity of
phytochemicals for their potential as pesticides against phytophagous insects
(Padmaja and Rao, 2000). Plant extracts and phytochemical have been
investigated intensively for the past 40 years in an effort to develop
alternatives to predictable insecticides (Isman 2006). The most efficient
phytochemicals and secondary metabolites produced by plants include tannins,
alkaloids, flavonoids,  amino acids,
sugars, quinines, phenyl propanoids, polyphenols, terpenoids, polyacetylenes,
essential oils, etc., have a wide range of mode of actions and anti-insect
properties, including insecticidal, antifeedant, repellent, and insect growth
inhibitory activities and used as defense against phytophagous insects (Ahmad
2007; Dhaliwal and Koul 2011). Most of the research works are being made
worldwide on plant based
natural products have been of tremendous importance due to their ecofriendly
nature, easily  to
find safer, cost
effectiveness biodegradable substitutes and their benefits to the mankind without any
harmful effects, and is the only immediate and easily available rich natural
resource (i.e. secondary metabolites) around our surrounding
environment several plants have been broadly investigated and reported for
possessing insecticidal properties including the well-known commonly available
tree Azadirachta indica(neem tree). The
goal of research on plant secondary metabolites is to find new environment
friendly, biodegradable, and biologically active natural products with low
mammalian toxicity to avoid the lethal effects of synthetic chemicals in the
environment and non-target animals (Kubo 1997). Among the botanicals, only neem
(Azadirachta indica Juss.) has been successfully commercialized. However,
there are many promising plant species, which contains pesticidal compounds
(Isman, 1995; Jacobson, 1989; Schmutterer, 1992). More than 1,005 plant species having
biological properties against different pests 
including 384, species as antifeedant, 297 as repellents, 97 as
attractants and 31 as growth inhibitors (Grainge et al., 1985). In India
the use of neem is well insecticide accepted in the earliest Sanskrit medical
writings (Watt 1972 and Abdul Kareem 1980). In last 25 years there is a rich scientific
literature is present on effects of plants secondary chemicals on various
pests.  In 1980–2000, only a single novel
botanical insecticide established and registration for use that is Azadirachta
indica (neem). As it is an
effective feeding deterrent and insect growth regulator with ecological
determination and negligible mammalian toxicity and non-targeted animals (Isman
2006).From last two millennia in
ancient China, Greece, Egypt and India there was practice of using botanical
pesticides in agriculture since1200 BC. In Europe and North America the use of
botanicals are familiar from last 150 years. In China wood ash was used
for pest control (Jones et al., 1973).
In those days botanicals
products like aqueous extracts of plants, powder products, and mixed plant
products were used to control the insect pest. Many plants like neem and hyptis act as insecticides, antifeedant and repellents. (Thacker, 2002). All botanicals are using from old
practice to control the all type of agricultural pests.Neem (Azadiracta
indica) is the most commonly used natural insecticide. Azadirachtin
(tetranortriterpenoids) is the foremost active principle extracted from neem
leaves and seeds and is one of the supreme promising plant products for
integrated pest management (Schmutterer, 1990; Hasan and Ansari, 2011; Ahmad et al., 2013a). More than 100 insects
belonging to 10 different orders (Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Homoptera,
Hymenoptera, Orthoptera, Dictyoptera, Heteroptera, Diptera, Isoptera and
Thysanoptera) and another 100 non-insect pests can be controlled successfully
by using plant products (Gahukar, R. T 1995).Rainy season favors quicker development of
lepidopteron pests such as Castor Semilooper (Achaea janata L) and shoot and capsule borer (Conogethes
punctiferalis Guen.) were reported as major pests of castor
(Lakshminarayana, 2010).  Castor crop was
also damaged by sucking pests’ like white fly (Trialeurodesricini Misra),
leaf hopper (Empoasca flavescens F.) and thrips (Retithrips syriacus Mayet)
causing typical “hopper burn” symptoms. 19 -85 % of yield loss has been
reported in castor due to semilooper and capsule borer (Sing et al., 1992).
Botanical insecticides are natural toxins extracted from plants. When compared
with chemical pesticides, botanicals are cheaper with less biohazard and
mammalian toxicity. Plant derived insecticides breakdown quickly in the
environmental condition, and resulting in little risk of residues on food
crops.   The Castor (Ricinus communis L. Family:
Euphorbiaceae) crop is native to the Ethiopian region of East Africa. It
is cultivated in tropical and warm temperate regions throughout the world
and grown mainly in arid and semi-arid regions.
.
In 30 different countries Castor is cultivated for commercial uses Asian countries are
major castor growing countries (Watt 1892) of which 90% world production
gaining from India, China and Brazil. The plant is fast
growing, but the seeds need a long frost-free season in order to mature. The
seed contains 40 – 60% of oil that is rich in triglyceride, mainly ricinolein.
The seed also contains ricin, a toxin, which is present in lower concentrations
throughout the plant. It is one of the important non-edible popularly commercialised in
oilseed industrial uses and high export potentialIn 1992, Gaikwad and Bilapate were
recorded 36.36 % reduction in castor leaves, 26.35 % in branches per plant, and
21.32 % in capsules per branch and 19.58 % reduction in seed yield in unprotected
plots as compared to the plots protected with insecticides from Maharashtra
regions. They estimated that yield was decrease by 30–50% due to the semilooper
alone. (Basappa and Lingappa, 2001). Among which the castor semilooper (Achaea
janata) (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera) is one of the main defoliator of castor
crop in India (Gaikwad and Bilapate 1992). During severe infestation larvae also
forage on developing capsules resulting in enormous crop loss (Singh et al., 1992). It is popularly known as
castor semilooper; due to its voracious feeding nature it causes extensive
defoliation (Parthasarathy and Rao 1989). 
Mainly it feeds on tender
leaves and capsules and causes 5 to 90 % yield loss depending upon larval mass
(Prabhaker and Prasad 2005).  It also feeds on many plant species including
weeds, shrubs and trees of Euphorbiaceae family, in which castor is included as
a  main host and Other secondary hosts
for A. janata reported are: Rose (Rosa indica) (Vyas 1994), mustard,
Chinese cabbage, tamarind, tomato, sugarcane, as well as some other teas,
legumes, other Brassica species (John
and Muraleedharan 1989). And also A.
janata larvae have been found defoliating ornamental garden plants like Quisqualis indica and Dodonea viscose (Kavadia and Verma
1973), even if castor plant was available. Moths were found to feed on guava
fruits (Gaikwad and Bilapate 1992). Nevertheless castor and croton are preferred hosts.  A. janata larvae feed voraciously
castor leaf except veins and petioles (Ronald and Jayma, 2007; Budatha et
al., 2008) causing severe damage to the castor crop.Clerodendron
inerme G and Clerodendron
phlomidis/ multiflorum belongs to family Lamiaceae consists of many
phytochemicals such as  alkaloids,
carbohydrates, glycosides, anthraquinone glycosides, phenols, steroids,
saponins, flavonoids, tannins and phenolic compounds, proteins (Bharat B et. al 2015). Phytosterols, (Chirmade et al, 2016).  Novel crystalline compounds such
as clerodolone, clerodone, clerodol and a sterol designated clerosterol have
been isolated from the root seven sugars namely raffinose, lactose, maltose, sucrose, galactose, glucose and fructose were identified (Manzoor-Khuda, 1965). Saponin is one of the major
compounds of the leaf (Pal et al., 2009).
Scutellarin and hispidulin-7-O-glucuronide are present in the leaf (Subramanian, 1973).  Poriferasterol and stigmasterol are the components of the aerial parts. (Akihisa, 1988).
Traditionally C. multiform leaf powder have been used to treat asthma, rheumatism,
inflammation, hypertension, diabetes (Mishra 2003, Sankar et al., 2010). Leaf extracts studied against Aphids and
hairy caterpillar (upadhyay 2002, Bharvad 2005), also used to control grain
protectant (Charpot, 1998) and to control Heliothis species (Gandhi 1998). Vitex negundo belongs to family Lamiaceae leaves
contains carbohydrates, tannin, glycoside, volatile oils, resins, balsams,
flavonoids, saponins terpenes, sterols, phenols (Mehrotra et., al 1993).
V. negundo leaves are having good biochemical components used for broad spectrum
of different health problems in folk medicine and experimentally and also
attributed countless curative activities like antioxidant, analgesic,
anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant, bronchial relaxant and so on.  The leaf extracts are studied against various
insects like mites, beetles, store grain pests and tobacco leaf eaters and
reported good pesticidal results (Tandon 2005). Leaf extracts of various
solvents like acetone, chloroform, alcohol, hexane, ether etc are tested for
mosquito repellent properties (Kala et al.,
2004). The leaf extract was
inhibited oviposition deterrent with decreased fecundity in females of E.
mollifera.Whereas the Argemone Mexicana belongs to family Papaveraceae contains three
isoquinoline alkaloids, dihydropalmatine hydroxide, berberine and protopine
(Gupta et al., 1990). As well as,
terpenoids, flavonoids, phenolics, long-chain aliphatic compounds, and few
aromatic compounds are found to be other constituents of this plant. (Singh et al., 2009a) Pongamia pinnata belongs family Leguminosae is deciduous, nitrogen fixing
leguminous tree. It is present in subtropical and tropical regions and also
grows in a wide variety of soil types. The seeds are rich in toxic flavonoids
like pongapin, karanjin and pongaglabrin. While the seed oil is non-edible,
using for biodiesel and cosmetic world (Vivek and Giridhar, 2007). The seed
kernels containing 30-40% oil and it has repulsive odour and also show
fungicidal properties (Sanjib 2005). While seeds consists saturated acids like
palmitic, stearic and unsaturated acids like oieic, linoleic (Meher et al., 2004).However, to date there are no reports on
the insecticidal,  activity of ethanol
leaf extracts of either Clerodendrum
inerme, Clerodendrum viscosum,
Clerodendrum multiflorum, Vitex
negudo Linnaeus (Lamiaceae), Argemone mexicana (Papaveraceae), plants leaves and Pongamia
pinnata (Leguminosae) seeds on Achaea janata larvae therefore these
plants were selected. While economic benefits from the use of locally prepared
botanicals are encouraging, the greatest benefit from the use of these
materials may well be in terms of human health. Therefore, following plants
were selected for present work based on available literature with respect to
insecticidal property of these plants.The best solution to overcome harmful
effects due to synthetic pesticide is the utilization of plants’ bioactive
molecules for controlling pests or
insects. The use of botanicals  have been
increased intensely in recent years because plants
are the most efficient producers of phytochemicals including secondary
metabolites in the environment,  that are
used by the plant in defense against phytophagous insects (Ahmad 2007). To reduce the harmful effects and insect resistance of synthetic pesticides
and insecticides is to use plant derived insecticides (Bio-pesticides).       In present study locally available plants
were used to determine toxicity. Easily available plants like commonly known
and easily available
plants like Clerodendrum inerme,
Clerodendrum viscosum, Argemona mexicana, Clerodendrum multiflorum and Vitex negundo. However, to date there
are no biological reports on the plant species conducted
against the castor semilooper pest. Furthermore, all these plant species are easily
available in and around Kolhapur district region. By considering all aspects an
experiment is conducted to study the opportunity to usage of above mentioned
plant extracts to study biological activity against Achaea janata (Castor semilooper)
and selected plant contains
biochemical’s compounds therefore these plants were selected by adding
following objectives.  1.      To
study the biology of test insect Achaea janata.2.       To
study the insecticidal efficacy of individual and combined plant extracts against Achaea
janata3.      To
study the antifeedant activities of individual and combined plant  extracts against Achaea janata 4.      To
study the growth inhibitory properties of individual and combined plant extract against Achaea
janata.     

 

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