13The Docking Port is a hemisphere 30m in radius where a rail mechanism is used to move spacecraft toparking places once they’ve been docked at the bottom of the Port. Inside the Docking Port is theThorium nuclear reactor which supplies energy to the entire settlement.To facilitate for the close intimacy Divinity has with Earth, project Divinity also describes newtechnologies of space travel. A new launch vehicle, Massive Earth Transfer Vehicle, is formulated, aswell a space cannon for rapid transfer of cargo. As project Divinity relies heavily on lunar resources,a lunar base and a lunar mass driver is also conceived.The economy of Divinity, other than tourism, industry, and research, is composed of revenue fromsports and art, to which much resources of Divinity is invested.1.2.BackgroundProject Divinity takes into much account recent findings by Al Globus 1 2 3 of a new paradigmof space settlements that are smaller, nearer, and consequently, more realistic. Many of the resourcesand systems used are taken on present-level technology or technology expected to arrive within thenext century.1.2.1.Location188.8.131.52.OrbitThe Divinity space settlement is situated in the Equatorial Low Earth Orbit. The decision comes afterthe recommendation by Al Globus 2 for its accessibility and benefits of radiation shielding.Divinity is situated on the equatorial orbit approximately 500 km in altitude, where it orbits the Earthonce every 13.8 days at the speed of 6.92 km per second. The calculation can be done using the OrbitalVelocity Formula, which is copied below:????????GMrWhere, G is the universal gravitational constant (G = 6.673E-11 N·m2/kg2), M the mass of the body atcenter (mass of Earth for our purpose, M = 5.98E24 kg), and r the radius of orbit in meters 4. Thisformula gives the minimum speed the settlementshould orbit the Earth. The actual orbiting speedshould be marginally faster to take into account air drag, and should be sustained by occasional boostsvia propulsion systems.184.108.40.206.Radiation ProtectionThe 500 km altitude orbit is within the protection of the Earth’s magnetic belt which deflects much ofthe solar and cosmic rays away from its interior. This conclusion is significant in that the radiationlevels outside the Van Allen belts are so high thatit requires immense amounts of radiation shieldingmaterials to cover the exterior of the settlement, contributing to the difficulty of constructing a spacesettlement. Prior efforts to build space settlements, especially those done by students, either gave littlethoughts for it or justified by referencing the abundance of resources available in outer space. Whilethe former is blatantly myopic, much of the latter efforts still underestimate the astronomical effortsrequired to displace such amount of mass. This is especially concerning seeing how radiation shieldingalone can constitute up to the later-90 percent of the entire settlement mass. 2 Also, as a sizable14portion of the settlement is in rotation, the mechanism of keeping such mass in rotation, or inquiry intowhether the chosen shielding material has the composite characteristics necessary to keep its rotationstatus, needs much study, something that has been poorly investigated into. In most cases the rotatingpart is held taut from the center, meaning that the structure between the shielding mass to be situatedon the outermost part and the inner lining should have the structural integrity capable of surviving suchtension. In many cases these studies are neglected, even though failure to finding a solution means theentire rotating part has to be redesigned. Some designs like the Stanford Torus 5 has a separate, non-rotating radiation shield outside the rotation part thatsolves the structural integrity problem, but thesedesigns must still answer the questions of transporting the shielding mass. Yet other designs 6propose their own magnetic shields like that of Earth, but does not present a compelling method inmaintaining the amount of magnetic shielding required, or sourcing the amount of energy to keep theshield. Of more concern is that many such proposals do not comprehensively investigate the influenceof such strong magnetic fields on the human biology, or take into account how it will affect spacecraftpassing through the magnetic shield. Seeing how much of our extraterrestrial lives will depend ondigital instruments and the uncalculated for danger for communications malfunction, we haveconcluded that such solutions are ill advised.In such backgrounds, a 500 km orbit requires no new method of shielding and utilizes a source that hasbeen dependable for the past millennia, and whose property has been extensively researched for theFigure 1. Radiation measurements taken on the ISS which orbits the Earth at 400km altitude. Note the highradiation above and around South America. The region depicts the South Atlantic Anomaly, an area wherethe Earth’s inner Van Allen radiation belt dips down to 200km altitude, resulting in the increased radiationflux shown in the map. An orbit that does not goaround the equator consequently must pass the SouthAtlantic Anomaly at some point, requiringradiation shielding far heavierthan would be needed in anELEO. Image credit NASA. 315past decades. Al Globus has done extensive researchon the radiation levels at the said orbit usinghighly sophisticated NASA radiation modelling software OLTARIS, and concluded that the 500 kmorbit requires not much more shielding than what would be generated by basic hull mass. In a crudesummary, hull mass of approximately one ton per squaremeter results in interior radiation level below20 mSv0F0F1/year and 6.6 mGy1F1F2/year, which is seen, in the said study, to be acceptable levels of radiationeven when considering pregnancy.1.2.2.TimeIn Appendix A: Settlement Growth Path of 2 a possible future of space exploration is outlined. In thepaper, a symbiotic relationship between space exploration technology and space tourism is described,a relationship which will most likely set the stage for an exponential development of space. ProjectDivinity takes advantage of that possibility, setting the settlement Divinity in an imaginary, yet highlypossible, prospect of a future where the space exploration boom has happened. Consequently, the nextsection will outline various components that the authors of this report believe to be developed withinthe next century.1.2.3.BackgroundA large, High Earth Orbit (HEO) settlement requires literally astronomical amount of mass, which canbe supplied only after sizable colonies have been constructed on the moon and among the Asteroids.Such background will require at least a century ofpreparation, a timeline too far away that, whileprospectively fascinating, is of less merit to the authors herein who wish to research about a settlementrealizable within the next century.Based on the works by Al Globus, et al. the authors of project Divinity decided to place Divinity on aunique timeline. Assuming the space tourism industry to bloom within the next few decades, certainadvancements in both orbital transportation technologies and extraterrestrial industry will come by.Project Divinity will delineate these factors in its own account, specifying and extrapolating to theextent where it may be deemed feasible for the next century.220.127.116.11.Propulsion TechnologiesFor propulsion technologies, Divinity will assume the development of reusable rockets that will fly asfrequently as a hundred times per year. A global fleet of such rockets numbering up to hundreds willenable flight rates of tens of thousands, if not more. And with each operating country or companyproviding different types of payload at different safety level, cost, and time, the space launch marketwill see a significant reduction in flight prices.With NASA’s Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle(Orion MPCV) having a crew of 2-6 astronauts 7and Space X’s Dragon spacecraft having a crew of7 people 8 at concurrent times (year 2016), it is reasonable to expect that the space vehicles to bedeveloped in the next decades to have crew capacityin the double digits. For the timeline of Divinity,spacecraft of 15 crew seems feasible, and even 20 not entirely unrealistic. With over a hundred launchvehicles operating as frequently as hundred times a year, ticket prices for passengers to go out intoorbit, or the price of settlers to ELEO space settlements, drastically decrease. Specifically, assuming a1mSv – millisievert, 10-3sievert, a measure of the absorption of radiation by the human body2mGy – milligray, 10-3gray, a measure of radiation16total of twenty thousand manned launches per yearwith each launch carrying 20 passengers to LEO,the cost per passenger would be little over 160,000 U.S. dollars in 2015 rates. 9 18.104.22.168.Resource DevelopmentFor resources, Divinity will assume primitive resource market on the moon and asteroids. While thecheapest way of delivering high-quality cargo to orbit currently envisaged is the Earth Space ElevatorInfrastructure (ESEI), the fact that it would extend well over the geostationary orbit altitude of 35,800km at the equatorial orbit makes its presence incompatible to a settlement at 500km ELEO. As such,the next cheapest way of delivering materials willbe from the moon or Asteroids, excluding rocketdelivery methods. While an advanced lunar base comparable to small cities may not come aroundwithin the next half century, some form of resource launch facility will almost certainly be in place.For USA, NASA has been steadily taking steps to re-visit the moon, with the new Space LaunchSystem (SLS) and Delta IV Heavy rockets being ableto deliver spacecraft such as Orion MPCV to goto the moon and beyond. The X Prize Foundation has kept a continued interest to visiting the moon,with the google Lunar X PRIZE reinvigorating public’s interest since 2007 11. For China, the ChinaNational Space Administration (CNSA) has launched the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program (CLEP),with its ultimate goal being the exploitation of lunar resources of titanium and helium-3 12. Whileother countries such as Russia, India, Japan, andSouth Korea has expressed interest in building aresource base on the moon, whether they will achieve thisfeat within the next half century and maintainthe capacity to operate it to a sizable degree is to be seen. But even so, the amount of interest in theUnited States and China alone is already quite sufficient to expect a lunar resource base within the nexthalf century. For this, Divinity assumes some wealth of resources to be easily transported from themoon, which will prove especially valuable when creating the base structures for the space settlementthat will require no higher physical properties than compacted lunar regolith. Specific size and capacityof the lunar bases to mine and ship lunar resources will be further explained in later chapters.While the moon is the largest resource depot on Earth orbit, Asteroids represent a more versatile sourceof resources, especially in ice and heavy metals. Forthis, at least two U.S. private companies, PlanetaryResources and Deep Space Industries, have taken a leading role in harnessing Near-Earth Objects forcommercial value. With Planetary Resources planning to have the capacity to deliver water fromasteroids as early as the early 2020s 13, and DeepSpace Industries to send out its first fleet of probesin the 2010s 14, resources, and even elementary products made from Deep Space Industries’prospected 3D printing labs, will be acquirable at the stage of Divinity’s construction.1.3.AcknowledgementsMany members of team Divinity are now going through their second year of participating in the NSS-NASA Ames Space Settlement Contest. The members have learned a lot from the two years, the 2015International Space Development Conference, the feedback we had from our friends and peers. TeamDivinity also participated in the 2015 Asian Regional Space Settlement Design Contest as a non-Indiansemifinalist, where we could see the contrast thetwo international competition for space settlementdesign. For this, we would like to thank Mr. Al Globus for giving us this unique opportunity to truly”research” and scientifically indulge in the science of space settlements.While we could have recycled the proposal we gave for the 2015 ARSSDC, we saw how different thetwo competitions were, and the value NSS-NASAAmes Space Settlement Contest had over the other17in terms of original, yet realistic study into the mechanics of space settlements. As to this, we decidedto construct a wholly new design based on Mr. Al Globus’ most recent works, taking into account thevarious papers he wrote for the topic. While ourreport may lack in quantity from our last year’ssubmission we hope that we have given a more thorough and comprehensive view into the truemechanics and architectural virtue of the settlement.Last of all we would like to thank KangSan Kim (a.k.a. Antonio Fowl Stark), our good friend, leader,and now our advisor. He has led the team for lastyear’s competition and for this year’s ARSSDC, andwas the prime motivator for us to construct a newdesign for this year’s NSS-NASA Ames SSDC. Hismotivation and enthusiasm was many times what kept us going forward.182.Structural Design2.1.Structural OverviewDivinity space settlement is comprised of rotating and non-rotating sections. The rotating parts are theresidential torus and the connecting spoke while the non-rotating sections are the central hub, industrialcomplex, microgravity complex, assembly yard, docking port, and debris shield.The torus extends radially away from the centerline at a distance 155 to 211 meters. The “ground” ofthe torus, which is set to be the ground level for our purposes, is at 200 meters from the centerline,with 45 meters “above ground” and 11 meters “below ground.” The torus is 65 meters wide at theground level, with the width tapering down in a somewhat logarithmic manner above ground, and in amore precipitating shape below ground. The “above ground” section of the torus is almost entirelyused for residential purposes while the space “below ground” is used for treatment facilities, storage,and common areas that does not necessarily have to be above ground and takes up much space. TheFigure 2. Cross-section diagram of the Divinity space settlement and models of contemporary spacecraftand launch vehicle. Dimensions are shown in meters;the debris shield is omitted from this figure.19below ground section is further divided intoaccessible areas and inaccessible areas. The accessiblearea is from 0 to 5 meters below ground, and is a mere extension of the residential community wherefacilities such as hospitals, shopping malls, and service departments are located. Population traffic intothe accessible area is high. The inaccessible area houses water treatment facilities, air purificationplants, waste management plants, emergency resource storage facilities, and computers that managethe internal torus network. The inaccessible area is almost entirely unmanned, and is accessible onlyby authorized personnel due to its importance, and is designated ‘inaccessible’ to the generalpopulation.The transfer spoke is a square pillar of radial length 55 meters and side length 10 meters. A total of 6transfer spokes, the spokes manage transportation between the non-rotating and rotating sections of theDivinity settlement. Each spoke has 12 compartments, 6 of which is from the non-rotating sector tothe rotating sector, and the other 6 going the other way. The spoke is symmetrical to the center planeorthogonal to the central axis so as to provide redundancy and safety when one or more traffic line isjammed. In total a transfer spoke has two passenger transfer tunnels going outwards, two passengertunnels going inwards, two cargo tunnels going outwards, two cargo tunnels going inwards, and tworesource pipes going outwards and two resource pipes going inwards.The non-rotating part consists of 6 parts: the central hub, the industrial complex, the microgravitycomplex, the assembly yard, the docking port, and the debris shield. In total, the non-rotating partextends 100 meters radially and stretches 175 meters from top to bottom. The “top” direction of thesettlement is radially outwards from Earth, or “starward” as the authors of this paper like to describe.The “bottom” direction points down to Earth, with the terrestrial resources right at hand.The central hub is a shaft of radius 15 meters thatconnects the entire non-rotating parts. It is hollowwith rails on its sides that allow for pods and robotic arms to travel up/down and sideways.The industrial complex sits at the top, or starward direction of the non-rotating structure. It is 70 meterin radius from the centerline, 25 meters in height. The industrial complex is compartmentalized intovarious sectors whose size can be varied when needed. The industrial complex has direct access to thecentral hub, so as to transfer resources directly from the assembly yard. The industrial complex has atile ceiling, which can be opened or closed selectively. This allows some sectors to operate in apressurized environment while others sectors canbe depressurized to utilize the unique spaceenvironment. Many larger spacecraft and settlement parts are manufactured on the Divinity industrialcomplex, which can be directly deployed into outer space right after its completion. Although theindustrial complex is large enough (over 330,000 cubic meters of volume2F2F3) to accommodate for3The volume of the industrial complex can be computed by adding the volume of the cylindrical part and the truncatedcircular cone part. The former is a cylinder of radius 70meters and height 18 meters, the latter a truncated cone ofupper radius r1= 50m, lower radius r2= 70m, and height h=7m. The formula for the volume of a truncated circularcone is:??????????????????. Using this formula and the values above, the total volume of the industrial complex isapproximately 331333.3051986 cubic meters.20multiple Falcon heavy rockets3F3F4(see Figure 2) and even the entire international space station4F4F5, theceiling can be fully opened to work on larger structures.The microgravity complex can be further divided into three sectors. Sector 1 is 28 meters in height and100 meters in radius, and shares its height with theindustrial complex. Sector 2, the largest of the threesectors, also has radius 100 meters at the top which tapers down to 60 meters from 15 meters from thetop level. Sector 2 is 40 meters in height and consecutively houses the larger facilities and institutions.Sector 3 tapers further from radius 60 meters to 50 meters for 20 meters’ height, and then combinescompletely with the central hub (radius 15 meters) for the next 10 meters.The assembly yard 30 meters in height of which the upper 25 meters is same with the central hub atradius 15 meters. The entire cylinder of height 25 meters is made of small tiles hinged against eachother. As such, the wall can open as much as needed, allowing input of any resources delivered fromEarth as long as it is smaller than 25 meters high and 30 meters in radius, or can be rotated to anorientation that can fit into such space. The last 5 meters of height extends 10 meters further from thecentral hub, and houses the machinery and airlocks for operation at the assembly yard.The docking port is composed of three parts: the 30meters’ radius, 5 meters’ high cylindrical storagefacility, 30 meters’ radius, 5 meters’ high spaceship parking lot and maintenance facility, and the 30-meter radius hemispherical docking ports. The cylindrical storage facility also has external riggings tostore fuel for rockets or cargo for temporary stay. The ledge created by the 5-meter radius differencebetween the lower end of the assembly yard and the upper end of the docking port also serves as riggingfor astronauts on EVA to hold on to, as well as structures upon which trusses can be built for spaceshipmaintenance. The docking port work in tiles so that spaceships attached from the lowermost end of thehemisphere can be moved to other parts of the sphere for temporary storage. Longer-term parkingspacecraft or spacecraft reserved for emergencies are moved to the spaceship parking lot.2.2.The TorusThe torus is a cradle for the residents staying at Divinity. Except for the few temporary visitors and theworkers at the industrial complex section of the settlement, the majority of the residents live their dailylife inside the torus, working during the day and sleep at night. The wall of a residential torus is theonly protection against the extreme environment of the Space for humans. Under hard vacuum and asevere thermal condition fluctuating from minus 120°C to 120°C, no human can survive. Water insidehuman body would boil up, and the body would start to freeze from the inner surface of mouth andnose where the evaporated water come out through. Atop of all that, lack of oxygen would causerespiratory and circulatory system to fail, eventuallyleading to death within a few minute. Even witha proper protection device such as spacesuits, one cannot survive in Space for more than few days aslife support system would not possibly last very long.Hard vacuum and temperature fluctuation is a small proportion of a danger that Space poses. Unlikeliving on Earth where a thick layer of atmosphere shields most of the exterior threat, there’s always adanger of cosmic radiations when living in Space. Continuous exposure to cosmic rays would cause4A Falcon Heavy rocket manufactured by SpaceX has a height of 70m and width of 11m. The Falcon Heavy has adiameter of 3.66m 43 with two additional strap-on boosters also of diameter 3.66m 42.5The International Space Station is of length 72.8m, width 108.5m and height 20m 44, and will fit comfortablyinside the diameter 140m, height 25m cylindrical industrial complex.