2.0 not limited to making inappropriate advances. In

2.0       PREVIEW

 

A literature review aims to review the
critical points of current knowledge. This chapter focuses on the past
researches that related to this study. Many studies have been conducted
previously in study on sexual harassment in the workplace. Therefore, this
chapter provides further discussion that related to the study from the past
researches.

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2.1.      SEXUAL
HARASSMENT IN THE WORKPLACE

 

Sexual harassment is not limited to
making inappropriate advances. In fact, sexual harassment includes any
unwelcome verbal or physical behavior that creates a hostile work and quid pro
quo environment (McLaughlin, Uggen, & Blackstone, 2012). Besides that,
whether the offense is made by a manager, co-worker, or even a non-employee
like a client, contractor, or vendor, if the conduct creates a hostile work
environment or interrupts an employee’s success, it is considered unlawful
sexual harassment. According Jenkins, (2013) there are few examples of sexual
harassement in the workplace:

1.   
Sharing
sexually inappropriate images or videos, such as pornography, with co-workers

2.   
Sending
suggestive letters, notes, or e-mails

3.   
Displaying
inappropriate sexual images or posters in the workplace

4.   
Telling
lewd jokes, or sharing sexual anecdotes

5.   
Making
inappropriate sexual gestures

6.   
Staring
in a sexually suggestive or offensive manner, or whistling

7.   
Making
sexual comments about appearance, clothing, or body parts

8.   
Inappropriate
touching, including pinching, patting, rubbing, or purposefully brushing up
against another person

9.   
Asking
sexual questions, such as questions about someone’s sexual history or their
sexual orientation

10.  Making offensive comments about
someone’s sexual orientation or gender identity

 

 

2.1.1.   Hostile Work
Environment

 

A hostile work environment is a
workplace in which unwelcome comments or conduct based on gender, race,
nationality, religion, disability, sexual orientation, age or other legally
protected characteristics unreasonably interfere with an employee’s work performance
or create an intimidating or offensive work environment for the employee who is
being harassed. In addition to the person who is directly harassed, other
employees who are impacted by the harassment which by hearing or viewing it are
also considered victims. They too might find the work environment intimidating
or hostile, and it might affect their work performance. In this way, bullies
and harassers can affect many more people than just the targeted employee.

 

2.1.2.   Quid Pro Quo

 

Quid pro quo harassment occurs in the
workplace when a manager or other authority figure offers or merely hints that
he or she will give the employee something (a raise or a promotion) in return
for that employee’s satisfaction of a sexual demand. This also occurs when a
manager or other authority figure says he or she will not fire or reprimand an
employee in exchange for some type of sexual favor. A job applicant also may be
the subject of this kind of harassment if the hiring decision was based on the acceptance
or rejection of sexual advances.

 

2.2. JOB SATISFACTION AND PERFORMANCE

 

For decades, organizational
researchers have been intrigued by employee satisfaction with work. Some
studies have examined antecedents of job satisfaction, specific dimensions of
job satisfaction, and the relationship between job satisfaction and outcomes
such as job performance (Igalens & Roussel, 1999; Pool, 1997). Among many
individual antecedents that influence employees’ innovative performance are
attitudes (Williams, 2004), cognitive styles (Scott & Bruce, 1994),
personality and demographic characteristics such as age, education background,
and prior R&D experience (Roberts, 1991; Rothwell, 1992). In terms of
organizational antecedents, expenditure on Research & Development
(Hadjimanolis, 2000), cooperation with external technology provider, leader’s
influence (Hage & Dewar, 1973), and reward system (Eisenberger &
Cameron, 1996; Janssen, 2000; Mumford, 2000) are commonly cited as factors that
affect individuals’ innovative performance.

Kahya (2007) also
investigated on certain factors that affect the job performance. Some studies
were reviewed describing the effect of experience, salary, education, working
conditions and job satisfaction on performance. As a result of the research, it
has been found that several factors affected the employee’s performance. The
position or grade of an employee in a company was of high positive effect on
his or her performance. Working conditions and environment, on the other hand,
had shown both positive and negative relationship on performance. Highly
educated and qualified employees showed dissatisfaction of bad working
conditions and thus affected their performance negatively.

Employees of low
qualifications, on the other hand, showed high performance in spite of the bad
conditions. In addition, experience showed positive relationship in most cases,
while education did not yield clear relationship with the performance (Kahya,
2007). Meta-analyses have shown that the relationship between performance and
job satisfaction is positive, but small (George & Jones, 1997). However,
analysis at the organisational level has shown that organisations with higher
average levels of job satisfaction outperform other organisations (Ostroff,
1992). Some studies have suggested there is still lack of workable
understanding of the way different factors such as work values, job
satisfaction, and performance interact with one another (George & Jones,
1997).

Porter and Steers (1973,
in Pool, 1997) argued that the extent of employee job satisfaction reflected
the cumulative level of met worker expectations. This means that employees
expect their job to provide a mix of features (e.g. pay, promotion, autonomy)
for which the employee has certain preferential values. The range and
importance of these preferences vary across individuals, but when the
accumulation of unmet expectation becomes sufficiently large there is less job
satisfaction, and greater probability of withdrawal behaviour (Pearson, 1991).
According to Wheelan (2010), education chances which organizations that focus
on educating and training people about the technical aspects of their jobs and
about effective group participation will increase the likelihood that
organizational groups will become high performance teams.

Job satisfaction is
focused primarily on its impact on employee commitment, absenteeism, intentions
to quit, and actual turnover (Agho, Mueller & Price, 1993). However, across
studies, the proportion of variance in turnover explained by levels of
satisfaction may be smaller than originally thought (Hom & Griffeth, 1991;
Lee, Law & Bobko, 1999). On the other hand, a two-year longitudinal study
showed that employees who changed jobs and stayed in the same occupation and
employees who did not change jobs at all (Wright & Bonnett, 1992). In
particular, satisfaction with the facets of meaningful work and promotion
opportunities were significant predictors of intentions to leave an
organization.

Mathieu (1991) tests of
the causal ordering of job satisfaction and organizational commitment found
that the effects of a variety of antecedents on organizational commitment were
mediated by their impact on the job satisfaction (Tsui, Egan & O ‘Reilly,
1992). Aspects of the work situation have been shown to be determinants of job
satisfaction (Arvey, Carter & Buerkley, 1991). For example, a broad
situational factor, job level, is positively correlated with satisfaction with
all aspects of the job probably because higher- level jobs tend to have better
working life.

 

2.3.      WHO ARE THE
HARASSER

 

Before policies can be developed to
end sexual harassment, policymakers need to know whether sexual harassment
reflects individual behavior or whether certain organizational characteristics
are more conducive to such behavior. Empirical studies consistently document
that a majority of harassers are male and more likely to be at the same or at a
higher organizational level than their victims.

There is little other evidence of a
pattern by social status, occupation, or age, making it difficult to identify
likely harassers. A body of literature identifies organizational
characteristics that create an environment in which sexually harassing behavior
can exist. Key characteristics include an organization’s tolerance for sexual
harassment and the gender composition of the workplace, which includes factors
such as the sex of the supervisor and whether an occupation is considered
traditionally male. Sexual harassment is more prevalent in organizations with
larger power differentials in the hierarchical structure, and in male-dominated
structures like the military.

2.4. CONSQUENCES OF SEXUAL HARASSMENT

 

Harassment also has negative
consequences on the environment victims are in and can lead to a hostile and
less productive work environment. It costs organizations through damaged
morale, lawsuits and absenteeism. In this study, researcher found that, the
impact from the act of sexual harassment can be very significant both on the
victim as well as the organizations.

 

2.4.1 Personal Impacts

 

There are numerous studies about the
consequences of sexual harassment. According to Burke (1995) these consequences
are:

1.   
lesser
satisfaction with their jobs,

2.   
lower
overall satisfaction with the firm

3.   
greater
intention to quit

4.   
more
likely to have personally experienced bias in the firm

5.   
less
optimistic views on obtaining due process when reporting harassment

6.   
view
the firm as less committed to treating all employees fairly.

Studies by Kissman (1990); Loy and
Stewart (1984); Marrow, McElroy and Phillips (1994); Ragins and Scandura (1995)
discovers that victims tends to experience decreased job satisfaction,
decreased organizational commitment and increased levels of stress. Female
victims also experience tension, anger, and anxiety while a limited number
experience depression or guilt (Crull, 1982; Jensen and Gutek, 1982). There are
also instances where victims may also feel the need for medical or
psychological attention (Thacker and Gohmann, 1993).

2.4.2. Organisational Impacts

 

Sexual harassment may impact an
organization’s success by jeopardizing employees’ perception of personal
security, thus creating decreased employee satisfaction (Nixon, 2002). Lower
satisfaction often results in higher turnover and absenteeism, decreased employee
productivity, lower morale and decreased likelihood that the employee will be
innovative and spontaneous. Organizations may also be subjected to added
expenses for legal charges and fines as well as other compensations and
penalties (Aburdene and Naisbitt, 1992).

2.5.      SEXUAL
HARASSMENT LAW AND LEGISLATURE

 

Sexual Harassment Law is primarily a
large part of Employment Discrimination Law, Civil Rights Law and in some
cases, may also result in a Personal Injury lawsuit. Although not clearly
defined and subject to interpretation by various courts, sexual harassment is
generally described as unwanted and unsolicited physical advances and conduct
of a sexual nature, such as touching, rubbing and groping, and sexual,
demeaning, degrading and/or offensive comments and activity that may or may not
carry the implication that the individual being subjected to these advances may
suffer job-related or school-related retribution if she/he rejects them.

Sexual harassment is
usually divided into two main categories: Quid Pro Quo and Hostile Environment.
Quid Pro Quo is the more overt form and refers to an individual in a position
of power demanding sexual favors or acts in return for action or inaction, such
as a promotion or promising not to terminate the employee or person of lesser
power who is the subject of the harassment. A hostile environment is the more
common type of sexual harassment, but more difficult to prove.

This exists when an
employee is made to feel uncomfortable and suffers emotional and/or mental
strain due to frequent exposure to offensive sexual talk and jokes,
pornographic images and repeated unwelcome sexual advances, although there is
no threat to the employee’s advancement in the work place or continued
employment. This type of sexual harassment is that which is continually being
interpreted and re-interpreted by case law and legislative actions.

The Equal Employment
Opportunities Commission (EEOC) is the federal agency responsible for
establishing and administering guidelines and regulations addressing sexual
harassment by way of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act. When filing a claim by
way of the EEOC, the employee may seek the following remedies: reinstatement of
employment if she/he has been terminated; a promotion that was unfairly denied;
an award of lost wages and other job-related losses; punitive money damages;
and injunctive relief, which orders the offender to cease the unwanted sexual
harassment, to create a comprehensive written sexual harassment policy and to
pay the employee’s attorney’s fees.

Additionally, many states
have enacted Fair Employment Practice (FEP) laws which address and regulate
sexual harassment on the state level. However, most of these statutes do not
provide for recovery of personal injury damages in a sexual harassment claim.
If a company has an established sexual harassment policy in place, it is
usually necessary to follow the steps and procedures set up by the policy
before an employee can escalate the complaint to the EEOC or a state FEP
agency. Only after compliance with the company policy has failed to resolve the
problem, may the employee proceed with a claim outside of her/his employer’s
purview. The EEOC and state FEP agencies usually offer alternate dispute
resolution (ADR) services as a means of resolving a sexual harassment dispute
without formal legal involvement and excessive expense.

A small minority of state
level agencies have also established administrative courts which will hear the
complaint and may award compensatory money damages for personal injuries
sustained by the employee due to the sexual harassment. When an employee has
exhausted the services of the EEOC or state FEP agency without resolution of
her/his complaint, only then may she/he sue. Usually the government agency will
issue a legal document, most often called a “right-to-sue letter” that allows
the employee to file a civil lawsuit.

2.6. ACTIONS TAKEN BY VICTIM OF SEXUAL HARASSMENT

 

There is relatively little material
for women, men or organizations on how to deal with social-sexual behaviours at
work. Women may find advice on how to avoid sexual harassment or how to deal
with sexual jokes helpful, but given the root causes of such behaviours (men,
sexualized work environments); such advice should instead be given to male
managers of organizations (Burke, 1995). Organizational efforts to reduce
sexual harassment, flirting, and sexual joking must come from managers who have
the power to change an over-sexualized work environment. These exemplars can
set the tone of appropriate language, conduct and appearance.

The creation of policy
guidelines and their distribution, the dissemination of supportive literature,
addressing these issues in management training seminars, and embodying
appropriate attitudes and behaviours in the culture of the organization are
necessary elements in reducing the negative consequences of subtle and
not-so-subtle social-sexual behaviours at work. Policy guidelines must also be
implemented and fully supported if they are to be useful in reducing
social-sexual behaviours in professional service firms. People who are
offended, humiliated or intimidated by workplace behaviour rarely bring their
concerns to the attention of senior staff and managers due to the following
reasons:

1.   
fear
of work-related reprisals;

2.   
distrust
of management;

3.   
not
wanting to be seen as a troublemaker;

4.   
wanting
to fit in;

5.   
mistrust
of grievance procedures;

6.   
guilt
that something they did encouraged the behaviour;

7.   
low
self esteem;

8.   
social
conditioning;

9.   
differing
cultural values about what they think is acceptable behaviour; or

10.  a feeling that harassment is a
‘normal’ part of workplace culture (and that nothing can be done about it).

Riger (1991) proposes that
the reasons for the lack of use of sexual harassment grievance procedures lie
not in the victims but in the procedures themselves. The reasons for the lack
of this grievance procedures is because men and women differ in their interpretation
of the definition of harassment, and, given their generally greater power,
men’s ideas about what constitutes harassment are likely to prevail.
Attribution theory also suggests that men will be more likely to see sexually
harassing behaviours as having a situational cause; thus, women are seen as
provoking the behaviours. In addition, grievance procedures for dealing with
sexual harassment are likely to be written in gender-neutral terms to make them
applicable to both women and men; however, women and men may have different
reactions to the same procedures.

Informal sexual harassment
procedures try to solve a problem, whereas formal procedures typically attempt
to decide on the guilt or innocence of the alleged harasser. Because women
typically lack power, using a formal procedure may be seen as risky and they
might prefer to use informal procedures. With informal procedures offenders
suffer few negative consequences for their actions and victims may have little
to gain from complaining. It is obviously possible to develop more effective
policies and procedures, but even these will not eliminate sexual harassment.
Instead, exclusive efforts at prevention need to be mounted at the individual,
situational and organizational level. The most important factor in reducing
sexual harassment is an organizational environment which promotes equal
opportunities for women (Gutek, 1985).

2.7.      THEORY GUIDING THE STUDY

In this study,
it has a lot of theory that was related. This is because of, there are many
scholars do the past research on this topic which is a study on sexual
harassment in the workplace. However, researcher choose token theory for this
study.

 

2.7.1.   Token Theory

 

The token theory or tokenism refers to
the discrimination and marginalization of the member of a group in a minority
position. This theory proses that members of any social group will be
discriminated against if their group makes up less than 15% of an organisation.
The theory of token discrimination was developed using evidence from women’s
experience of harassment and marginality in male occupations. There are no
support was found for negative tokenism effects when men are minority. Men
entering female-dominated jobs are generally welcomed or there is a little
evidence that they are marginalized by their female colleagues (Kanter, 1977).

However, although the sex ration of
occupations is an important variable in many studies, the effects of tokenism
are rarely examined in the studies. in this study, it is related to the token
theory because of it showed that women in male-dominated accupations were more
likely to experience sexual harassment than women in other occupations.

2.8.      PAST RESEARCH ON SEXUAL HARASSMENT

 

Early studies attempting to document
the prevalence of sexual harassment of women in the workplace found between 50%
and 92%of the respondents had experienced some form of sexual harassment. These
studies were useful because they provided and served as a foundation for later
and more detailed research, and they also provided valuable descriptive
information on the nature and effects of sexual harassment at a time when very
little was known about the problem.

Besides that, a Swedish national study
found that sexual harassment in male-dominated professions was more frequently
perpetrated by colleagues, whereas in female dominated jobs a superior is more
often the perpetrator.

Moreover, an interesting study by
Barak, Azy (2005) looked at “Sexual harassment on the Internet” and outlined
the characteristics of online sexual harassment, identified its similarities
and differences to offline sexual harassment, discuss how technology and
cyberspace supports this behaviour and identified some prevention strategies. It
revealed that online sexual harassment can be both active and passive. The
active form specifically targets a specific individual directly through the use
of verbal and graphical sexual messages that are offensive and typically occurs
in chat rooms and forums.

Passive sexual harassment occurs when
the harasser sends graphic and verbal offensive messages to multiple recipients
through the use of verbal offensive nicknames, and pornographic pictures
attached to emails, as opposed to sending offensive messages to a particular
person.

Although several studies have
attempted to investigate the sexual harassment in workplaces, the results of
these surveys are somewhat difficult to compare because the definitions of
sexual harassment, sampling procedures, population studied and research
methodologies often vary from one study to another. Taken as a whole, however,
these studies clearly indicate that sexual harassment in a serious and
widespread problem for men and women especially at workplace today.

2.9.      SUMMARY

 

As a conclusion for this chapter,
based on the collective of information for the title in this research study,
sexual harassment is a crucial problem that has to prevent to get a good
working environment at workplace. Organization itself should play it roles in
preventing the sexual harassment so it can maintain the organization’s
reputation. Besides that, in this chapter, there are different terms related by
the dependent and independent variable of this study was being highlighted.

 

 

 

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