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2.1. The origin of the Antifa movement  2.1.1 History:The Antifa movement started in the early 20th century. The movement originated in Europe, as an outcome of the rise of Fascism and Nazism during the Second World War. The rise of the movement started for the most part in Germany, Italy and France. This was because totalitarianism began to become a vast concern in the beginning of the 20th era. Totalists such as Hitler and Mussolini both wanted to change the economic and social issues in their home countries. They were anti communists and they did not believe in total equality. They became both fascist dictators and they invaded other countries in the hope of making one big and powerful country.During the Second World War, the Antifa did not consist of one big group. The movement was divided into several groups, but all with the same purpose: fight against the totalitarian regime and create equality. In Italy, the anti-fascist called themselves the Arditi del Popolo, which stood for “The People’s Daring Ones”. The group consisted of several political movements such as socialists, communists and anarchists.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The group was found at the end of June 1921 as a result of Mussolini’s dictatorship and his violent group of followers: The Blackshirts. They were supporters of Benito Mussolini and his totalitarian ideas and they were very loyal to him. The name originates from the black uniforms that they would always wear. They used a lot of violence against Mussolini’s adversaries and they are responsible for a lot of deaths in Italy during the 1920s.In Germany there were multiple anti-Nazi groups during the early 1920s. Some of the important ones were the Reichbanner Schwarz-Rot-Gold and the Roter Frontkämpferbund.The Reichbanner Schwarz-Rot-Gold was a social democratic group who played a central role in the anti-Nazi resistance. They assembled a big group of people who were against the Nazi’s and their goal was to fight back against the SA units who used a lot of street violence against opponents of the Nazi regime.The Roter Frontkämpferbund was a propaganda organization led by the communist party of Germany. They were against the idea of the Nazi’s and as a result they used a lot of propaganda to promote the work of the communist party of Germany. They would often organize events and hold propaganda marches in rural areas to get poor citizens and agricultural workers to join their movement. This movement was pretty successful as the group consisted of 130.000 followers by 1929.In 1932 these groups became one during the united front period, under the name: The Antifaschistische Aktion. It was an alliance which consisted of anti-Nazi’s groups. Political movements like the social democrats and the communists made an agreement to fight together against the repression of the Nazi’s.2.1.2 What do they stand for:The Antifa is nowadays mostly active in the United States. The movement primarily wants to prevent Neo-Nazis and nationalists from spreading hate and racism in the world. The Antifa also furthermore wants more equality in the world and they want to narrow down the wage cap. The movement had not been very popular for a long time, but this has recently changed. The movement has been growing very fast and the group is expanding into several countries. One of the reasons for the immense grow is the amount of attention and news coverage that the movement has achieved in the last 2/3 years. The biggest reasons for this is Trump’s Presidency. We will furthermore explain this in our next chapters.

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