ABSTRACT not well understood hence the research study.

 

ABSTRACT

Global
dairy industry continues to grow as the global demand for dairy products
continues to increase as a result of increase in world population.
Dairy industry provides employment to many people from farmers, distributors to
those working in milk processing industries and especially the youth. The Kenya
dairy sector is a vibrant sector in the livestock industry and has continuously
grown over the years. It is one of the largest in Africa and the leading
producer in East Africa. Dairy farming plays a major role in Sotik
sub-county as the main source of food and income among the small holder dairy
farmers in the area. In entire sub-county the effects of poor infrastructure
and its contribution to milk losses among these small holder dairy farmers were
not well understood hence the research study. The entire research study was
focused on two specific objectives which was to analyze the
contribution of poor roads to the losses in milk incur by farmers in the rural
areas and to investigate the impact of absence of storage facilities especially
milk coolers to losses in milk in the rural areas. The source
of the data for the study was primary data collected from a sampled of eighty
(80) dairy households’ farmers with the use of structured questionnaires. To
determine the effect of poor infrastructure and its contribution to milk losses
in the area, descriptive analysis were used to analyze the data collected. The
results analysis indicates that poor roads and lack or inadequate storage facilities
such as milk coolers have contributed to milk losses in the area. The study
gave a number of recommendations for farmers and both national and county government
to adopt in order to reduce the effects of poor infrastructure in the area among
smallholder dairy farmers for example in order to expand and improve dairy
production in the area roads and storage facilities should be improve, encouraging
farmers to form formalized social groups and organizations like cooperatives
societies for easier access to credit to construct milk coolers.

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INTRODUCTION

Livestock production accounts for over 40% of
the world’s agricultural gross domestic product according to (FAO 2009). Apart
from playing a major role in contributing to food and income generation through
the sale of its products; milk, meat and hides, livestock is also as valuable
assets to farmer as they are store of wealth and collateral for financial
credit access. In general therefore livestock production remains as the main
economic activity for majority of farmers in the area. Dairy production in
Kenya experiences a number of challenges which contribute to high costs of
production and low productivity (Muriukietal 2003). These challenges have led
to low profits returns level to the smallholder dairy farmers’ producers thus
the need for improvement of roads and storage facilities so as to reduce losses
that farmers incur. In recognition of the importance of dairy farming in Kenya,
Sotik sub-county region remains as one of the main categorized region in Kenya
for dairy production. Majority of these smallholder farmers derives their
incomes from this dairy. More so this became more evident with failure of maize
farming production in the region due to the emergence of Maize lethal necrotic
(MLD) disease which severely affected the maize in the region leaving the
entire dairy sector as the main source of income in the region. Thus in order
to meet the already mention importance of the sector to these smallholder dairy
farmers in the region ,availability of better of better roads and storage
facilities is important to enable these majority of smallholder dairy farmers
who are more vulnerable to milk losses due to poor infrastructure to meet
better returns on their milk produce. It is in light of this recognition that
the entire dairy farming has proved to be a key livelihood strategy for
smallholder dairy farmers in the entire sub-county and especially the entire
whole country at large. The importance of the sector has been
recognize by the government of Kenya as seen in many development policies for
example the National Development Plan of 2002 to 2008.Economic Recovery
Strategy for Wealth and Employment Creation (ERSWEC) of 2003 to 2007. Government
recognition of the dairy sector and its support has led to the continuous
growth of the dairy sector to become the most developed in the livestock
industry. Milk production in the country has grown from 3.2 billion liters in
2003 to 5.2 billion liters in 2013(Kenya Dairy Board Annual Report, 2014).Various  dairy technologies have been promoted by the
government of Kenya(GOK) and various development partners like International
Fund For Agricultural Development (IFAD) and Swedish based agency; Agricultural
Sector Development Support Programme(ASDSP). Despite of all these interventions
challenges in dairy production still persist among the smallholder dairy
farmers. The Kenyan dairy sector comprises of an estimatedof600,000 smallholder
dairy farms around the country, these farmer’s accounts for 56% of the total
milk production country and 70% of the total milk marketed  (Omore et al 1999). Dairy farming in Sotik-sub
county is not left out from these problems; they have continually faced many
problems in marketing of their milk produce in their households, this hinders
them from improving their livelihood standards.

RESEARCH
PROBLEM

The
study is aim at addressing the challenges the dairy sector is facing in terms
of poor infrastructure in the rural areas and its contribution to the losses
that dairy farmers in rural areas incur.lot of research has been carried out on
the challenges that causes spoilage in milk and this research is aim at
improving the solution that is already in place. Milk producing areas  in Kenya have poor infrastructure in terms of
poor roads and electricity and also the absence of storage facilities like milk
coolers and this become more severe during rainy season has during rainy season
the milk production is high due to availability of pastures and other animal
feeds like fodder. Milk production is high but roads in rural areas are
impassable and as a result the milk doesn’t reach the market since the
processers cannot come to collect the milk and the middlemen also faces the
same challenge as their modes of transport cannot access the road. The farmers
in rural areas  do not have access to
storage facilities like milk coolers hence milk are not collected and they are
not stored in cool facilities and milk is a perishable product. The farmers are
left with no option but to keep their product and either consume it or sell at
throw away prices to fellow villagers if the demand is there. This always
results to losses to rural farmers in Sotiksub county. The government of Kenya
has been trying to improve roads in the country but rural roads in most parts
of the country are in poor conditions. Improvement of infrastructure like
construction of roads in rural areas, supply of electricity, and construction
of milk coolers will help in overcoming the challenges smallholders of dairy
production faces that causes them a lot of losses.

 

OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH

To
analyse the effect of infrastructure to milk losses among smallholder dairy
farmers in Sotik sub-county.

SPECIFIC
OBJECTIVES

To
analyze the contribution of poor roads to the losses in milk incur by farmers
in the rural areas.

To
investigate the impact of absence of storage facilities especially milk coolers
to losses in milk in the rural areas

 

STUDY AREA.

The
study was carried out among smallholders’ dairy farmers in Sotik sub-county in
Bomet County, Kenya. The area is situated in the highlands hence it is suitable
for dairy production in the area. The area lies at an
altitude ranging from 1500-2500m above the sea level. The area receives a
rainfall amount ranging from 1800mm-2200mm.Temperetures ranges from 18-22
degrees Celsius.The study was conducted among
small-scale dairy farmers in the area.

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS

DATA
TYPES AND SORCES

The
study uses primary data. Primary data was collected by use of structured
questionnaires and interviews to the smallholder dairy farmers. The
questionnaires were administered to these smallholder dairy farmers. This was
for the purpose of better analysis and accurate information.The survey was
structured to capture the type of roads in the area and the storage facilities
and their importance and its effects to milk losses. Data collected included
whether milk is the main source of income to the farmers. Descriptive
statistics were used to analyze the data.

DATA
COLLECTION METHOD

The
study used primary data collected through personal interviews with the use of a
structured questionnaire. Questionnaires were administered so as to enable the
researcher to get in-depth information from the respondents regarding. A total
of 80 respondents were sampled randomly to generate data.

DATA
ANALYSIS

To determine the effect of poor
infrastructure in the area to milk losses descriptive statistics were used to
analyse the data with the
help of Statistical package for social sciences analysis (SPSS) were used.

 

RESULTS.

AGE
OF THE REPONDENT

AGE IN YEARS

PERCENTAGE OF FARMERS

Below 18

3.8%

19-35

32.5%

36-50

38.8%

51 and above

25.0%

 

 

 

EDUCATION

EDUCATION LEVEL

PERCENTAGE OF FARMERS

Primary

40.0%

Secondary

32.5%

College

16.3%

University

11.0%

 

DO
YOU SELL YOUR MILK

Do you sell your milk

Percentage of farmers

Yes

96.3%

No

3.7%

 

BUYERS
OF MILK

 

Who buys your milk

Percentage of farmers

Processers

52.5%

Milk vendors

26.3%

Local consumers

6.3%

Schools

3.8%

Hotels

7.5%

 

IS
DAIRY PRODUCTION MAIN SOURCE OF INCOME

Dairy production main source of income

Percentage of farmers

Yes

57.5%

No

42.5%

 

POOR
INFRASTRUCTURE AFFECTS MILK DISTRIBUTION

Poor infrastructure affects milk distribution

Percentage of farmers

Yes

90.0%

No

10.0%

 

EXPERIENCE
MILK LOSSES

Have you experience milk losses

Percentage of farmers

Yes

81.0%

No

19.0%

 

FREQUENCY
OF MILK LOSSES

How often do you experience milk
losses

Percentage of farmers

Weekly

10.0%

At least in a month

61.3%

Any other

7.5%

 

MAIN
CAUSES OF MILK LOSSES IN THE AREA

Causes

Percentage of farmers

Poor transportation

50.0%

Lack of buyers

2.5%

Lack of storage facilities

30.0%

Home misuse

12.5%

 

TYPE
OF ROAD NETWORK IN THE AREA

Murram
100%

CONDITION
OF THE ROADS IN THE AREA

State of the roads

Percentage of farmers

Very good

3.8%

Good

13.8%

Poor

57.5%

Very poor

25.0%

 

PRESENCE
OF MILK PRESERVATION FACILITIES

Presence of milk coolers

Percentage of farmers

Yes

30.0%

No

70.0%

 

NEED
FOR MILK PRESERVATION FACILITIES

There is need of milk coolers

Percentage of farmers

Yes

88.8%

No

8.8%

 

AVERAGE
INCOME FROM MILK PER MONTH

Income per month (in ksh)

Percentage of farmers

Below 2000

2.5%

2001-5000

18.8%

5001-10000

21.3%

10001 and above

53.8%

 

DISCUSSION

The
results shows that majority of the respondents were between the age of 36-50
years.It also shows that majority of respondents only attended primary school
standing at 40%. Majority of the milk produce in the area are for sale which
stands at 96.3% and this shows why most of the respondents indicated that dairy
production is there main source of income in the area which stands at 57.5%.
The leading buyer of milk from smallholder dairy farmers in the area is milk
processing companies 52.5%, followed by milk vendors which contribute 26.3% of
the milk buyers. Majority of the milk farmers in the area said that poor
infrastructure in the area contributes to milk losses which stands at 90% of
the total respondents. This shows that farmers have incur a lot of losses in
terms of their income and produce as a result of poor infrastructure in the
area.

A
huge number of smallholder dairy farmers (81.0%) indicated that they have
experience losses on their milk produce before they reach the buyers. The
frequency of milk losses in the area shows that majority of the farmers
experience milk losers at least every month. The main causes of milk losses in
the area are poor transportation 50.0% and lack of storage facilities 30.0%.

 

ROADS

The
main mode of transport in the area is by roads either by use of motorcycles,
pickups or Lorries in fact it is the only mode of transport in the area. The
results show that the roads in the area are murram. Roads in the rural areas
are unpassable during the rainy season and thus prevent collection of milk from
the farmers. This contribute to farmers losing their milk and hence the income
from dairy production. The results show that poor transportation contributes
50% of milk losses in the area. Most of the roads in the sub-county are in poor
conditions which stand at 57.5%. Poor conditions of the roads make transport of
milk difficult and expensive to the buyers.

STORAGE
FACILITIES

The
main storage facilities that we were looking at here are milk coolers that
exist in the area and whether there is need for milk coolers so as to reduce
milk losses among smallholder dairy farmers in Sotik sub-county. Lack of
storage facilities contributes 30% to the total milk losses in the area. This
shows that lack of milk coolers is one of the major factors that contribute to
big losses that the farmers in the area incur. The results show that 70% of the
respondents indicated that there ara no storage facilities in the area. This
explains why lack of storage facilities is one of the main contributors to milk
losses in the area High percentage of the respondents 88.8% said that there is
need of milk preservation facilities in the area for it to curb milk losses and
increases the shell life of milk and hence will increase income for the
farmers.

 

CONCLUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

The
research study was about determination of the effects of poor infrastructure to
milk losses among smallholder dairy farmers in Sotik sub-county. The specific
objectives were effects of poor roads and its contribution to milk losses and
the other specific objectives were lack of storage facilities and its impacts.
We used descriptive statistics to analyse our data. Poor infrastructure
contributes to milk losses in the rural areas. Poor roads and lack of storage
facilities have contributed to milk losses among smallholder dairy farmers in
Sotik sub-county.

In order
to expand and improve dairy farming in sotik sub-county there is need for both
national and county governments to improve roads and install milk coolers
within the area.

Farmers
should be encouraged to further their educational level.This will broaden their
thinking and decision making skills and hence make better judgement.

Farmers
should be encouraged to form and join cooperatives societies where they are
able to access credit and establish their own storage facilities.

Encouraging
farmers to engage in other income generating activities so as to supplement
their income from dairy farming.

 

REFERENCES

Hooton, N.H. (2004) The Smallholder Dairy
Project: Experiences in dairy policy influencing in Kenya.

·        
Njagi Elizabeth Wangui (2013)Factors affecting the
distribution of dairy products: a case of 
Githunguri Dairy Farmers Cooperative Society Limited.
http://ir-library.ku.ac.ke/handle/123456789/6171

·        
Henk A.J., Moll, Steven J. Staal, M.N.M.
Ibrahim, (2007) Smallholder dairy production and markets: A comparison of
production systems in Zambia, Kenya and Sri Lanka, Agricultural Systems 94:593–603.

·        
Patrice Gautier (2008), Smallholder
Dairy in Vietnam, Study and Presentation on behalf of FAO within the
project “Improved Market Access and Smallholder dairy farmer Participation for
Sustainable Dairy Development” (CFC/FIGMDP/16FT)

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