Abstract Video summarization is a process of creating

Abstract

A face Recognition method is
implemented to find a particular person. Here we are detected specific player
from whole cricket inning video and summarize it, there are many techniques are
available for face detection, in this paper we are discussed some of them in
brief.

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Keywords

Object
Detect Using SURF, Face Recognition Using PCA, LDA

 

Introduction

Video summarization is a process of creating &
presenting a meaningful abstract view of entire video within a short period of time.
Main objective of this paper is to summarize whole video only for Specific
Player. Abstract video for specific shorts like four, six, out etc. and high
light the specific event from video.

Literature Review

In 2015, Jageshvar K. KecheVikas K.
YeotikarManish T. WanjariDr. Mahendra P. Dhore, presented a document on the
“Recognition of human faces based on the PCA method using MATLAB”.
The system receives input from the ENT database and is recognized by the training
set. Recognition is done by finding the Euclidean distance between the entrance
face and our training set. The results were simulated using MATLAB. This
approach is certainly simple, easy and fast to implement identification,
verification and authentication 3.

In 2016, A. Al-Asadi Tawfik and Ahmed
Obaid J., the document “Detection and object using an improved and
accelerated improvement of the function” present technique based on the
detection of objects. to detect and recognize objects in the scene is based on
the SURF algorithm, improving the detection performance of object descriptor
selecting stronger features, our proposed method correctly detects one or more
objects in the image data set and calculates the corresponding scores to the
object in the scene by applying three types of threshold and precision
measurements are the recognition of objects in different conditions of
rotation, partial occlusion, changes in lighting improved illumination image
input and orientation. Many real-time applications using the SURF algorithm can
detect how objects are displayed, our model calculates a lot of information
that is used throughout the detection of phase objects, so our proposed model
is easy to use, in which it is possible to select and change many parameters
such as the selected threshold and the octaves used for the detection and
recognition process 2.

In 2016, Yukti Bakhshi1, Sukhvir Kaur2 and
Prince Verma3, his work “An Effective Approach for Facial Recognition
Faces Using SIFT, SURF and PCA” Present three methods are SIFT, SURF and
PCA for face recognition to solve the coincidence problem of images in the case
of invariable faces. This method is quick and offers better recognition speed.
This is a method of cash facial recognition using the SIFT and SURF features to
extract the characteristics of facial images and, finally, the PCA technique is
applied to the image to achieve better results in case of variations in
expression and contrast, as well as the rotation. The local PCA descriptors
SIFT and SURF are more robust than the original local SIFT descriptors 4.

In 2009, Geng Du *, Fei Do, Cai Anni,
presented a report on “Face Recognition using Surf features”. They
present the features of SURF in facial recognition and offer detailed
comparisons with the characteristics of SIFT. The features of SURF have
slightly better performance than SIFT, but there is a clear improvement in the
speed of coincidence. Therefore, the characteristics of SURF proved to be
adequate for facial recognition.

In 2012, Muhammad Ajmal, Muhammad Ashraf
Husnain, Muhammad Shakir, Faiz Ali Yasir Shah Abbas and presented a document on
“Video Synthesis: Technique and Classification”. They present
techniques. The user wants to concentrate on the characteristics of the video.
Features such as color and movement. and voice, etc.

In 2016, Pawana Sharma1, Sachin Sharma2,
presented a report on “face detection and recognition with distance, and
SVM Hausdorff SURF”. They are used to obtain a better average error rate,
matching time, and accuracy result. Research work is limited to the acquisition
of facial recognition from a single image. The work can be extended into
several images at the same time. You can consider more and different parameters
in the future. In addition, new algorithms can be applied to improve face
detection and minimize execution time.

In 2009, Philippe Dreuw, Pascal
Steingrube, Harald Hanselmann and Hermann Ney presented a paper on the theme
“SURF-Face: facial recognition at the point sight restrictions
restrictions”, studied the use of SURF descriptors compared to the SIFT
descriptors for recognition Facial We have shown that using localized
aspiration features grid based approach rather than a based point detection
extraction of interest, the SURF descriptors and SIFT descriptors can be used
for face recognition, especially in combination with a grid-based compatibility
of coherence of the point of view.

Face Recognition
Algorithms

In this document,
the most environmentally friendly way to gain popularity for invariants is to
use the SIFT SURF and PCA strategies. The use of the SIFT and SURF algorithm
for detection capabilities and then follows PCA to fit in sentences of
rotation, expression and pose. Model recognition uses verification and
identification of two components 4.

PCA: these methods
are used for Eigen faces where images are small and reduce the size of data.
Image Compression Provides the most effective low-dimensional structure of the
facial model and each face image is represented as a vector of weighted sum
characteristics of the Eigen faces that are stored in the 1-D array. A linear
technique widely used in tactics based on the main aspect for FR. These
approximate objectives to solve the problem of popularity within an
illustration space lower than the image area 4.

SIFT: the SIFT
descriptor is invariable on scale, rotation, transformation, noise and is
highly distinctive. The characteristics of SIFT are four main steps in
detection and representation; (1) find the end of the scale space; (2) position
and filtering of key points; (3) orientation assignment; (4) descriptor of the
key point 4.

SURF: SURF
extracts key points from data set images and edited images. This coincides with
the key points between the modified image and each image in the database. In
the descriptor SURF it is invariable with a scale and the rotation
characteristics in the plane. It has two stages (1) detector of points of
interest and (2) descriptors of points of interest. The first stage, identify
the point of interest in the image. The use of the jute matrix to find the
approximate bearing is the difference of the Gaussian filter (DOG) used in the
SIFTS and in the points of interest of an image. The second stage, the
descriptors are used to extract the feature vectors at each point of interest
only in SIFT. Normally, SURF uses 64 SURF dimensions to reduce the cost of time
for both function matching and computation. SURF has a three times better
performance than SIFT 4.

In this document,
the Propose job first starts reading the input image and is preprocessed into a
grayscale image. Therefore, the features will be extracted from that image
using the SIFT and SURF algorithms respectively. It will be a produced image
consisting of both functions using SIFT and SURF.PCA will be applied directly
to that image. The goal of PCA is to extract the important characteristics of
facial data to delineate it as a set of new orthogonal variables that are
called main components. Now the coincidence will take place between the input
image and the image in which PCA is applied with different expressions,
contrast and rotation for invariable faces 4.

Object Detect Using Surf

In this document, first read
an integral image to store the object’s set and image, which will detect
characteristic points using SURF to form images and find the basis of the
strongest characteristic point in the threshold value. The strongest image
function is the extraction function and the corresponding function pairs and
controls a sufficient number of function pairs. Apply the RANSAC algorithm to
eliminate the wrong combined features 2.

In this document, two
different methods to characterize the extraction 1. Extraction of expressions
based on points of interest and 2. Based on grids.

The robust characteristics of
acceleration (SURF) are an invariant function of scale and rotation in the
plane. Contains detector and descriptor of points of interest.

1.
Interest point detection:

A difference in SIFT that uses
DoG to detect points of interest, SURF uses the determinant of the approximate
Hess matrix as the detector base. To identify the point of interest, we detect
structures similar to points at points where the determinant is maximum. The
integral images are used in the approximation of the Hesse matrix, which
drastically reduces the calculation time.

2.
Interest point description

SURF used the sum of Haar
ripple responses to describe the characteristic of a point of interest. Wavelet
filters were used to calculate the responses in the x and y directions. To
extract the descriptor, the first step is to construct a square region centered
on the point of interest and oriented according to the orientation decided by
the method of selection of the orientation introduced in. The region is also
divided into smaller 4 × 4 square subregions. This preserves important spatial
information. For each subregion, calculate Haar ripple responses in equidistant
5 × 5 sample points. For simplicity, we call right the Haar ripple response in
the horizontal direction and the Haar wave response in the vertical direction.
To increase the strength of geometric deformations and position errors, the dx
and dy responses are first weighed with a Gaussian centered on the point of
interest.

3.
Fast index for matching

To speed up the coincidence
step, use the Laplacian sign for the point of interest. Only the pair of points
with the same sign is combined with the characteristics.

Face Recognition Using PCA

            In
this article we present the biometric identification technology that identifies
people based on their facial features. The innovation uses a camera or a webcam
to ensure images or video sequences that contain human aspects, recognizes and
tracks the face in the image, then performs a face recognition. The facial
recognition system has four parts. (1) acquisition and detection of facial
images, (2) facial image preprocessing, (3) facial features extraction and (4)
facial matching and recognition 5.

First
read the original color image. Then the extraction of the face region of a size
of 128×100 pixels which applies RGB to the grayscale image 5.

In
PCA, the faces are represented as a linear combination of weighted eigenvectors
called Eigen faces. These eigenvectors are obtained from the covariance matrix
of a set of training images called the basic function. The number of Eigen
faces that would be obtained will be equal to the number of images in the
training set. Eigen faces exploit the similarity between the pixels between
images in a data set by means of their covariance matrix 5.

Conclusions

From
many years the research in face recognition is an exciting area to come and
will keep many researchers, scientists and engineers busy. So we are using the
most flexible and efficient method for face recognition is SURF features in
face recognition and gives the detailed comparisons with SIFTS features.
Experimental results show that the SURF features perform only slightly better
in recognition rate than SIFT, but there is an obvious improvement on matching
speed. Therefore, SURF features are proven to be suitable for face recognition.

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