Alcohol-derived metabolite, Acetaldehyde is leading scientists to a new connection between the link of alcohol consumption and cancer. Studies and tests on mice have shown the effects of this metabolite. Causing serious damage to DNA and stem cells. Acetaldehyde is a naturally occurring metabolite at low levels, and is causing a double stranded break to DNA, slicing it completely, also causing chromosome rearrangement, and changes to blood stem cells. Creating a mutation, that is being passed onto daughter cells. Normally what will occur is the enzyme Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2, oxidizing the acetaldehyde. Failure to repair the DNA breaks will lead to malignancies. Nature journal, provides an abstract of the test. Introducing Haematopoietic stem cells to whole-genomes, creating results that provide them with the information that shows mutation to the p53 gene, and with lack of repair the observations show that this damage of DNA occurs at stem cells, because after all is done, there is yet to be any rearrangements and changes made to stability in the genome. Furthermore, there are defence mechanisms that could stop the process, but often they lack at their job. The first mechanism is the enzyme from earlier, Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2, second defence mechanisms erases all DNA damage. In the study, mice that lacked both of these defence mechanisms, and even just the first one suffered from irreparable damage. Because of this acetaldehyde in alcohol, already 8% of the world’s population is dealing with these changes and breakages, waking up with a little more that an unwanted hangover. Personally I find these three articles provide a lot of information to the subject, but what truly drew my attention to it was that it could relate back to humans alcohol consumption and today there is so much underage going on, it would be interesting to know what could possibly occur as results to drinking. In the molecular genetics world, all that seems to be discussed a lot of the time is the CRSPR effect, I believe that it is nice to have found something of interest and importance to discuss other than CRSPR. The article provides readers with new and interesting news that is going to be life changing for some people, these affects could in many ways lead to positive change in cancer treatments, finding out the cause could help with development of how to treat certain types. The article, and people producing it are providing us with so much interesting knowledge on how something that is apart of our lives often enough, can cause us to become severely ill. I was able to relate this journal to molecular genetics because a huge focus of the unit was DNA, what he double helical figure is, how it is made, and what the effects of mutations can be to it. In order for the acetaldehyde in the alcohol to slice through this double strand, it is toxic enough to break hydrogen bonds, phosphodiester bonds, and glycosyl bonds that bind and work to keep complementary nucleotides together. Destroying DNA is a serious thing, because it is not universal, there is only one. This is why DNA is nucleus bound, to avoid toxic situations. Mutations are inherited by changes in the DNA, which is happening to the p53 gene. Because of what I learned in this unit I was able to connect that such a situation is known as an induced mutation, caused by a chemical agent. The acetaldehyde is a chemical that when not oxidized remains highly toxic. In our Molecular genetics unit we put our focus towards mutation and what they are. Certain chemicals in cases can be known as a mutagenic agent, and in this case that is the acetaldehyde, this chemical is inducing chances of cancerous mutations to DNA. A mutation like this would be consisting over a large area, and is known as a harmful mutation because it is changing the operation of the gene. The testing on mice also reminded me of the scientist Griffith, determining how pneumonia affects a mouse and why it would or wouldn’t die. Though the testing in these two cases occurred for different answers, it seemed to me to be similar because of the process they had to go through, in Griffith’s experiment he was trying to determine the cause of this, and later avery, mccarty, and macleod determined it was damaging the DNA. In this case, they know what they are doing, but they are allowing the mouse to be infected with this highly toxic alcohol-deprived metabolite, to see what it does to the DNA, to understand how the mutation will affect the situation. In conclusion, I learned a lot in this article that reminded me of similarities that i had learned about in my Molecular genetics Unit, i found it very easy to follow and understand such an interesting experiment to determine the effects of one enzyme not working in the pathway. It is sort of like what Garrod had hypothesized One gene directs the production of one enzyme, in this case because a gene is affected by a metabolite, the enzyme used to detoxify this metabolite is being canceled, and not doing its job, because the gene has already been blocked by a mutation.