Following the end of French and India war which significantly had adverse effects to Great Britain, Britain imposed new taxes and trade restrictions in America and other colonies which were met by rejection in these nations.
The colonized nations combined forces to reject the authority of the Great Britain’s parliament governing them from overseas without their representative from their government. In addition, they expelled all officials who were loyal to the Britain government.
However, this only fueled growth of conflict between them and Britain who objected the inclusion of their colonies representation in the British parliament. Still, this was not taken without due consideration by the colonies, who formed a continental army aimed at challenging Britain’s large organized militia.
Their goals were to suppress the imposed taxes on them, push out the Great Britain out of their territory, get rid of their parliament and install their own with no oppressive regulations. Orders were given to capture and destroy the rebels’ supplies in Concord and other locations and imprisonment of rebellion leaders.
However, the American forces were prepared and under Henry Knox, they successfully forced out the British troops. After the defeat, the Great Britain requested for pardon from America in exchange for surrender which was rejected. This forced the British forces to retaliate and they drove the army out of New York and the State insisted that the British monarchy could no longer claim their allegiance and in 1776, they cut ties with British Empire and the congress issued the Declaration of Independence.
By 1783, the British formally abandoned any claims to United States, and the American Revolution started a series of political, social as well, as intellectual transformations, rejecting the oligarchies in aristocratic Europe, and empowering republicanism development based on the liberalism Enlightened understanding (Axelrod, 2003).
The imposition of tax was one of the major reasons which lead to colonists protest. This led to protests, demonstrations and riots in order to pressurize tax collectors to resign. In 1767, when Charles Townshend came up with new set of taxes, creating American Board of Customs Commissioners to ensure rigorous duty collection which America resisted.
Additionally, the absence of American representatives in the Britain parliament failed to assure the American of proper governance by the British resulting to call for rebellions. The passing of the Quebec Act by the parliament made the colonists across the continent to feel that this was a solid proof that the Parliament was plotting to enslave America and they held that if the Parliament continued to insist on its supremacy, rebellion would be unavoidable.
In addition the colonists called out for responsibilities and limits of government in written charters stating that the British constitution was unwritten. They claimed for written bills of right; such as right of petition, trial by jury and habeas corpus among others in due process of law.
They were more influenced by philosophies such as “Age of Reason” in political equity, tolerance and civil liberties among others and “the Rights of Man” which noted the natural right of man which included his freedom. This based the language of the claim for liberty and freedom which showed that the denials in American’s lives by Britain were most essential and natural requirements (Turner, 1996).
Freedom begins with a capability of self-control both on one’s body and mind. For an enslaved parson, freedom means acquisition of self-ownership ability where a slave is no longer owned by someone else but self governed and driven. On the other hand women and Native Americans were denied equal rights both socially and legally. Their freedom entailed equal distribution of legal rights, political equality as well as equal opportunity in job distribution.
Property owner’s freedoms entailed right to own, use and even trade a possession without restriction. It also meant that no other party including government has right to dictate on how to use the properties as long as no offensive harm or coercion was done to other people.
The indentured servant were workers who signed for a temporally contract of servitude as labors or tradesman in exchange for passage to the New World. Their freedom was associated with provision of transportation, clothing, food, lodging and other necessities. Their freedom also included favorable venues on which to practice their profession, such as gardens and orchards. The puritans included a significant group of English-speaking Protestants.
It is a group that was persecuted and discriminated. However, being treated similar to the other people, being given the right to preach and practice their sacred activities as well as their right to live and determine their beliefs is what a freedom entailed in their surroundings.
Among these groups it is common that self-ownership and one’s right in making personal decisions applies to all. However, while some version’s freedom means acquisition of personal right, others entail rights to retain what they own without questioning (Brinkley, 1995).
Axelrod, A. (2003). The complete Idiot’s to American History. Phoenix: Alpha Books.
Brinkley, A. (1995). American history: a survey. Pineland: McGraw-Hill.
Turner, F. J., (1996). The frontier in American history. New York: Courier Dover Publication.