Albert Bierstadt, The Arch of Octavius (Roman Fish Market), 1858
The material of this artwork is oil on canvas. The artist tries to depict the peculiarities of Rome decline and inability to take everything under control. The combination of lines (horizontal, vertical, and diagonal) conveys the required feeling of movement and defines the two-dimensional shape and form of the image that were inherent to the art of the 19th century.
Texture of such shape gives an amazing visual sense of how the place looks like in real life with its ugly bricks, constant mess, and roughness. In general, the composition works through a variety of objects introduced by the painter.
Teresa Bernstein, In the Elevated, 1916.
Though the artist used oil on canvas as the main material for the work, the techniques preferred made this work different to the one of Bierstadt. The diagonal lines communicate the movement, and geometric shapes and forms prove that people are limited in their actions at the moment and have to follow the requirements set by the surroundings.
An appropriate combination of negative and positive space can make the viewer impartial to the image, still, the inability to identify the texture at the very beginning involves people into the analysis of the work. The chosen rhythm shows how it is easy to catch a moment and enjoy the beauty of life in the most unexpected places.
Edmund Charles Tarbell, Snow Scene, Plymouth, Massachusetts, 1905.
Oil on canvas is the material of the work. The artist introduces the role of winter in human life. Stability, calm, and even some kind of isolation depicted by the presence of negative white shape are the main subjects of the drawing. Horizontal lines promote the sense of space as well as the feeling of piece. The idea of unity makes the composition work and demonstrates the eternity of nature.
Willard Leroy Metcalf, Winter’s Festival, 1913.
By means of oil on canvas, Metcalf perfectly introduces winter as an integral part of human life. Nature is the main subject of the picture, and people are powerlessness to change the surroundings. Vertical lines unite earth and sky and communicate the idea of spirituality with the help of which people can reach piece, understanding, and perfection.
The chosen texture can make people feel uneasy as they cannot gain the necessary control over nature, still, the emphasis on the nature’s role shows that there is no need to strive for this kind of control in some situations.
John Henry Twachtman, Mother and Child, 1893.
Oil on canvas is the material chosen for this artwork. The artist introduces a caring mother with a child, who is too young to accept the reality as it is, this is why some kind of support from mother’s side is crucial at the moment.
Vertical lines aim at promoting spirituality to the image and defining two-dimensional shape and form by means of which people can easily identify the subjects. The chosen calm texture develops trust and comfort that come from mother’s embraces, and the properly chosen balance makes the whole composition works.
John Singer Sargent, Trout Stream in the Tyrol, 1914.
The chosen material oil on canvas helps to introduce a moment at the river when the trout stream is mentioned by a person. The idea to use diagonal lines is evident as the artist has to underline the idea of constant movement and the necessity to hurry up in order to enjoy the beauty. Three-dimensional space in the chosen two-dimensional artwork depicts the illusion that involves the viewer into the image. Cold texture in combination with natural colors is the required unity that makes the entire painting work.
Frederick Childe Hassam, Seaweed and Surf, Appledore, at Sunset, 1912.
Oil on canvas is used by the artist in this work. The moment at the seashore with the waves smashing the stones captivates many people. Maybe, it is the horizontal lines, which suggest the required feeling of rest and piece, or it is the three-dimension space of the work with two-dimensional shape with the help of which the author uses the area, or, maybe, it is unstable surface quality that is perfectly described by the chosen texture. Anyway, the chosen balance is what can make the composition work.
Maurice Brazil Prendergast, The Holiday, 1907-1909.
The material is oil on canvas. The author introduces a number of people, who gather together to celebrate the holiday and spend the day in the best possible way. Though the chosen horizontal lines should promote the idea of rest and piece, the artist adds several vertical lines, and such combination proves that image is moving, still, all movements are peaceful and reliable.
The combination of different textures is also the sign that several ideas are united to introduce the whole life as it is. It is complicated, still, it is clear; it is overcrowded, still, it is possible to find the necessary piece; it is unpredictable, but it is charming.
Chiura Obata, Mother Earth, 1912.
Ink and colors on silk is the material that is used by the author to introduce the image of nature and maternity. Evident vertical lines express spirituality as the main subject of the work, and soft texture deprive the viewer of different doubts and misunderstandings. It is a wonderful chance to use a two-dimensional shape and form to interpret the idea of natural eternity and human participation in it. A unity of people and nature is the main engine that makes the life being developed and the whole drawing work.
Sergeant Kendali, Cypripedia, 1927.
Oil on canvas is the material used in the artwork. The sense of this image is to underline the unity of people with nature and the role of women in human life. Vertical lines serve as the evident spiritual aspect of the image, and the two-dimensional shape of a woman in the center in comparison to small flowers and font tress is the sign of her undisputed role as a mother and her fertile image. The emphasis of a woman is the key point of the work that impresses people.
James Abbott McNeil Whistler, The Gold Scab: Eruption in Frilthy Lucre (The Creditor), 1879.
The chosen oil on canvas material is used to create this impressive portrait with a number of caricature features. The main peculiarity is inability to identify clearly the lines. The combination of diagonal and horizontal lines proves author’s uncertainty to define the sense of the image. The texture also remains unclear.
The only definite technique is the three-dimensional space of a two-dimensional shaped work. Such choices clarify artist’s intentions which are the desire to discover a monster inside of people around. Emphasis on the skin of the man and his desire to play the piano unites something unreal and that is what makes the composition works.
Frederic Edwin Church, Rainy Season in the Tropics, 1866.
Oil on canvas is a perfect material to introduce nature by human eyes. Evident vertical lines clarify the sense of the work that is to encourage people and promote spirituality as the main drug against routine mess and duties.
There are so many captivating things around, and people are not able to notice them, this is why the artist uses soft texture and three-dimensional shape and form to involve people into the idea of the picture. The unity of nature with rainbow is a sign of hope and victory of human mind and ability define the truth in ordinary subjects.
Albert Bierstadt, California Spring, 1875.
Oil on canvas is probably the best material to illustrate nature and its impact on human life. Bierstadt uses captivating diagonal and vertical lines to introduce the idea of movement in nature and its spiritual role for people. The texture is soft that allows three-dimensional space creates the required illusion with an ability to depict the objects in real life.
The artist pays much attention to the sky, the heavens people strive to achieve one day. Still, trees, grass, and animals perform the role of positive space in the work, this is why too obvious emphasis on negative space in the form of a white sky cause feeling of isolation.
Martin Johnson Heade, Singing Beach, Manchester, 1863.
The seashore is perfectly described with the help of oil on canvas. The idea of calmness, loneliness, and piece is depicted by thoroughly chosen horizontal lines. There are no vertical or diagonal lines, and their absence helps people focus on their unbiased attitude to nature and life. Soft and calm texture is the sign of artist’s modest behavior, and three-dimensional shape of the work is a kind of artist’s calling for creative thinking about the essence of life, human role, and connection to nature.
Bernstein, Teresa. In the Elevated. De Young Museum, San Francisco, 1916.
Bierstadt, Albert. California Spring. De Young Museum, San Francisco, 1875.
Bierstadt, Albert. The Arch of Octavius (Roman Fish Market). De Young Museum, San Francisco, 1858.
Church, Frederic Edwin. Rainy Season in the Tropics. De Young Museum, San Francisco, 1866.
Hassam, Frederick Childe. Seaweed and Surf, Appledore, at Sunset. De Young Museum, San Francisco, 1912.
Heade, Martin Johnson. Singing Beach, Manchester. De Young Museum, San Francisco, 1863.
Kendali, Sergeant. Cypripedia. De Young Museum, San Francisco, 1927.
McNeil Whistler, James Abbott. The Gold Scab: Eruption in Frilthy Lucre (The Creditor). De Young Museum, San Francisco, 1879.
Metcalf, Willard Leroy. Winter’s Festival. De Young Museum, San Francisco, 1913.
Obata, Chiura. Mother Earth. De Young Museum, San Francisco, 1912.
Prendergast, Maurice Brazil. De Young Museum, San Francisco. The Holiday, 1907-1909.
Sargent, John Singer. De Young Museum, San Francisco. Trout Stream in the Tyrol, 1914.
Tarbell, Edmund Charles.Snow Scene, Plymouth, Massachusetts. De Young Museum, San Francisco, 1905.
Twachtman, John Henry. Mother and Child. De Young Museum, San Francisco, 1893.