Annotated Bibliography on the War in Afghanistan

I. Causes of the War

Aldrich, G. (2002). The Taliban, Al Qaeda, and the Determination of Illegal Combatants

The American Journal of International Law, 96 ( 4), 891-898. This article gives an in depth description of the causes of the war in Afghanistan. The war had been caused by the September 11 bomb attacks in the U.S which had been conducted by Al Qaeda.

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There terrorists had a base in Afghanistan and it was established that they had a link with political government in power in that country at that time. The author highlights the reasons for the invasion and why the U.S government had to get involved. The journal article also highlights on a few difficulties at that time on how the terrorists captured will be treated according to international law.

II. Justification and Criticisms of the War

Franck, T. (2001). Terrorism and the Right of Self-Defense. The American Journal of International Law, 95(4), 839-843. This highlights the causes of the war and Justifies the United States Action to invade Iraq on the argument of self-defense based on the UN Charter. The author begins by highlighting the reasons certain experts have given on the illegality of the US invasion.

He goes ahead to address these criticisms one by one. He also gives the arguments supporting the invasion. The author has dissected the controversial Article 51 in the US charter which the US gave to the public as the reasons supporting its actions throughout that period.

O’Connell, M. (2002). The myth of preemptive self defense. The American Society of International Law Task Force on Terrorism. Retrieved from: http://www.asil.org/taskforce/oconnell.pdf . This paper discusses United States justification invading Afghanistan. The author highlights the reason why the invasion was wrong and unnecessary.

The author interprets the United Nations Charter Article 51 which allows a country to arise in self-defense when it has faced an armed attack. The article analyses the Article 15 and gives examples in history on the application of the guideline. It concludes that the United States should not invade a country based on the expected future actions of the country rather it should be on the armed attacks that have occurred.

III. Positive Effects of the War

Dunn, D. (2005). Bush, 11 September and the Conflicting Strategies of the ‘War on Terrorism’ Irish Studies in International Affairs 16, 11-33.

The Journal article discusses the different strategies the US government has taken in dealing with terrorism. The author shows the changes in approach since September 11 attacks. He highlights three main strategies, the counter-terrorism, pre-emptive and pre-eminence and the democratization of the Middle East.

The paper shows the positive effects of the war in Afghanistan in the region and the enhancement of security in the region and the US. The journal also highlights the tensions and arguments that have arisen over time concerning the use of the three strategies.

IV. Negative Effects of the War

Belasco, A. (2006). The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan and other Global War on Terror Operations since 9/11. Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress.

This paper discusses the costs effects of the wars the United States government has engaged in including Afghanistan. The high spending on defense has had a high impact on the budget of the country. The money could have been used in other critical sectors of the economy such as health, education and social security. The paper highlights the actual and opportunity costs of the wars. The paper goes into details showing the actual item costs of the wars and the trend in the costs both in the past and in the future.

References

Aldrich, G. (2002). The Taliban, Al Qaeda, and the Determination of Illegal Combatants The American Journal of International Law, 96 ( 4), 891-898.

Belasco, A. (2006). The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan and other Global War on Terror Operations since 9/11. Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress.

Dunn, D. (2005). Bush, 11 September and the Conflicting Strategies of the ‘War on Terrorism’ Irish Studies in International Affairs 16, 11-33.

Franck, T. (2001). Terrorism and the Right of Self-Defense. The American Journal of International Law, 95(4), 839-843.

O’Connell, M. (2002). The myth of preemptive self defense. The American Society of International Law Task Force on Terrorism. Retrieved from: http://www.asil.org/taskforce/oconnell.pdf

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