Chapter cricket team in 1947 and continues till

Chapter
3

Methodology

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In the first chapters of the thesis I look into
the history of cricket in India, and the gender bias in Indian
cricket I argued that due to our  history
Indian is  Patriarchal society.  The situation of women cricket in India is bad due to lack of opportunities
provided to women and the lack of support from the family of the women and the
way the media frames the Indian cricketer’s is very different for males and
females. Since the opinion of the public depends on the media as a basic news
source the opinions of the people are generally similar to what the media
portrays things to be (Shaller, 2006). The media tends to portray men as the
more active in sports and more physically strong compare to women, this
reflects in the way news frames portray women and men differently.  The media is very biased in a country like
India the media of India shows only what it wants to show without a proper
understanding about the actual problems people are facing in Indian society
today like gender biases in sport. Women in a country like India are also doing
well but the media never shows success stories of women this due to the
mindsets of people living in India which is very stereotypical and does not
allow women to do something of their choice. 
In the second chapter of the thesis which is the review of literature I
looked into the feminist theory, which says men and women should be treated
equally or on par in all spheres of life and society. I also looked into the
rise of the Indian male cricketer which began as soon as Indian got a national
cricket team in  1947 and continues till
today. I further look into the Indian women cricketer in the eyes of the media
which portrays women and female athletes as very subservient and weak in the
eyes of the media and society.  I then
looked into stereotyping of Indian women in sport which again shows women as
weaker sex in terms of body image and attitude. I then analysed whether the
Board of Control for Cricket in India is supporting our women cricketers enough
from the literature reviewed it shows the board is not doing enough for its
women cricketers there is no female member on the board as of today and
training does not begin at the grassroot level for the woman cricketers as
compared to their male counterparts. Most of studies cited in this thesis point
out that there is a gender biases in Women’s sport and the media plays a big
role in adding to that gender biases. In this chapter I lay out the methodology
for the dissertation.

 As Ayres
(2008) points out the media plays a big role in shaping the public opinion of
the viewers and the media is channel of information and understanding to the
people to perceive and formulate ideas about our society. The Indian media in
the context to women’s cricket has been very harsh and prejudice.  This is due to many reasons the first being
India a Patriarchal society which has influenced all aspects of society the
media and sport being at the core. As Kotekar (2013) points out even though
many women athletes in India have made a name for themselves our society does
not encourage women to participate in sports from a young age. Due to this
reason India does not see many Women athletes take up sport at a national and
international level. As Fountaine, & McGregor point out even though many
ads and tv shows are being made portraying women’s empowerment they are always
framed in a way that make them boring or news worthy for the viewers (2001).
This in itself tells us that the India media always portrays women in a less news
worthy or less interesting light. Our Indian media has never given decent
coverage to women’s cricket per say. As Nicely (2007) points out due to the
under representation of women athletes and cricketer’s in the Indian media the
audience also perceive women sports as not so important compare to male
athletes and cricketers. I will analyse videos of how the media frames women
cricketers differently. I will use the visual analysis for my methodology as it
will help me understand the hidden meaning in the videos that I will be
analysing as my data. As FitzGerald Elizabeth (2012) explains media videos have
hidden meaning in them often subtle but containing a very important message
pertaining to society in a big way. Visual analysis includes language and words
used by the reporters and the anchors in the media. Visual analysis also
incudes the guests on the show, the time slots given to the media show and also
the different camera angles used by the media. I will analyse all the aspects
and see how NDTV and India Today frame the coverage given to
the men’s cricket world cup 2015, and the women’s cricket world cup differently. India Today was previously known as
Headlines Today the time the broadcasting of the 2015 men’s cricket world cup
was going on. I will analyse how both the channels frame the men and women’s
cricket differently. I will be analysing the language and words used by the
guests on the show, the time slots on the shows the camera angles and the
guests on the show. Kirk  Hallahan (1999)
defines framing as to frame is to select some aspects of perceived reality and
make them more salient in the communicating text, in such a way as to promote a
particular problem definition, causal interpretation, moral evaluation and/or
treatment recommendation for the item descend. Frames define common problems
and are portrayed on the television to influence media viewers to watch more
television. The whole idea of framing is to hype and portray an elongated view
of the reality which sometimes might be true and sometimes might also be false.
Frames differ from culture to culture. As Karen Ayres (2008) points out the
media frames certain issues in a certain way so that the media selects certain
stories for public viewership, and the media also shapes how the public
considers an issue.  Framing theory is a
natural extension of agenda setting theory that in the sense it depends on the
media’s power to influence public opinion. Ayres (2008) states that when the
media focus on a dominant set of characteristics about a given object,
consumers focus on those characteristics when considering the situation. Which
means what the media focuses on gives more importance to and the public
interprets that in their own way. In my thesis to analyse the data I will use
the ‘Valence frame’ which attributes a thing or a group as good or bad by the
media. I will also use the ‘fairness and equality frame’ which try to
understand whether a particular social group for e.g. whether women are given
equal identity by the media. I will also use the ‘cultural identity frame’
which frames certain cultural values by the media for e.g. India being a
patriarchal society the media reinforces that by not giving good enough
coverage to women athletes who are doing well in sports.   In my thesis I will analyse the way the media
frames Indian women cricketers in different situations on and off the field,
the way the media frames certain attributes of India Women cricketers, the way
the media frames certain choices Indian women cricketers make, the way the
media frames the actions of the women cricketers and I will also analyse
certain issues in regard to the way media portray India women cricketers as
compare to their male counter parts.

The concept of media framing exhibits a
reporter and editor’s choice as to what aspect of the story should or should
not be emphasized says (Shaller, 2006). As Shaller (2006) points out most
sports shows on television have a target audience who are males and are
portrayed as strong and masculine who are winners, whereas women are not
portrayed as strong by the media that is why the target audience are men who
think of themselves as winners by the media which is not actually true. The
media in India does portray a very patriarchal approach when it comes to women
athletes in our country. The media is just a mirror to the actual realities
faced by millions of women athletes in India. Since individuals can have biases
this can also impact the framing. if the editor of a reputed media firm has
several biases towards women in sports there will be less shows on the channel
featuring women in sport. Framing is the best approach for my study I will be
analyse all the attributes through framing which will give a better
understanding as to how the media frames Indian women cricketers which for the
viewers. The media works on the television rating point (TRP) which means how
many viewers tune in to watch a particular show at a particular time. The media
to get more TRP’s portrays more male athletes in winning positions. Women
athletes winning does not get as much TRP’s as men winning according to (Crick,
2007). The media is a profit making business and wants more viewership at the
end of the day. The more TRP’s the more money the media house will generate and
more revenue comes in into further developing business prospects for the future
of the media channel.   As Ayres, (2008) says that news stories must
select certain aspects of reality and emphasize those issues to convey the
story.  Analysing all the frames will
help me investigate how the gender bias is framed in the Indian media. The
Indian media is a complex structure which requires time to understand how it
works the Indian media itself is male dominated in nature with less female
journalists as anchors of prime-time news shows.  I will be analysing how NDTV and India Today framed
the ICC cricket world cup 2015 which was the men’s world cup in Australia and
New Zealand, and the 2017 ICC women’s 
cricket world cup 2017 which was for the women and was held in England
and Wales in 2017. The Indian media in itself does not give to much importance
to sports the broadcast coverage on both NDTV
and India Today saw a very
minimal amount of shows for the women’s cricket world cup.

Since framing will be applied as the
theoretical framework for my dissertation I will be analysing videos on the
coverage of both NDTV and India Today particularly  how they frame the women cricketers to the
general public. The time frame of the men’s cricket world cup was February 14
to March 29 2015 and which was played in Australia and New Zealand. The Indian
men’s cricket team reached the semi-finals of the world cup and lost against
Australia. NDTV and India Today both the media channels from
India had sent journalists from India to cover the entire Indian teams
campaign. Whereas the women’s cricket world cup was held from 24 June to 23
July 2017 in England and Wales. The Indian women’s cricket team reached the
final against England but lost the match. Journalists from both NDTV and India Today were only sent when India reached the finals of women’s
cricket world cup no journalist was sent to cover the entire campaign of the
women’s world cup. Framing will help me understand how the media  puts forward certain things to the general
public. By doing so I will be able to analyse the amount of gender biases and
stereotyping that are present in the Indian media at large. I will be analysing
the entire campaigns of the men’s and women’s cricket world cup respectively. I
will analyse the words, gesture and the way the news presenter analyses cricket
differently for the different sexes. the way the media portrays men and women
cricketer’s differently through the camera. Framing theory will help me
strengthen my findings on the gender biases that are present in the Indian
media.  The scenes that will be analysed
under my data will be both on and of the field they will include interviews
with players, fans and family also I will analyse the studio setting how the
reporters cover the event. To substantiate my argument, I will find a positive
co-relation that there are gender biases in the Indian media between the
reviewed literature and the data. The framing theory is best suited to
understand how the media puts things forward to the public. The media also has
certain targets deadlines and biases which are discussed in the news room
beforehand and contributes a lot to how the media will frame a news show,
Interview or news segment.  

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