CHAPTER in a place’s climatic conditions or its



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2.1 Definiton
of Climate Change

Literally, Climate change is a nature condition that
climate changes randomly as global temperatures rise. The increase in
greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere, especially CO2, has trapped the
heat in the Earth’s atmosphere. It depends on the global weather system that
causes everything from unexpected rainfall to extreme heat waves. The Earth has
gone through a period of warming and cooling associated with climate change
over and over. The thing that is currently a major concern and approved by
scientists is what is being done faster than it has done before, and that is
warming up by the increase in man-made emission levels.

Based on Undang-Undang No. 31 Tahun 2009, climate
change is the changing climate directly or indirectly caused by human
activities that cause changes in the composition of the atmosphere globally and
changes in natural climate variability observed in comparable time periods.
That means climate change is a change in climatic conditions (average, pattern,
variable composition) that can be directly or indirectly caused by humans for
long periods such as decades or longer.

According to the IPCC (2001) states, climate
change refers to the average variation in a place’s climatic conditions or its
statistically significant variability for long periods of time (usually decades
or more). It is also clarified that climate change occurs because of internal
natural processes as well as external forces, or human activities that are
constantly changing atmospheric composition or land use.

2.2 What Causes Climate Change?

Indonesia is vulnerable to
the impacts of climate change. Sea level rise, disturbance in the agricultural
sector and food security is a threat in sight. Landfire becomes the toughest
opposition. Here are what caused climate change :

a.      Green House Effect.

The greenhouse effect is a
state when solar radiation is trapped in the atmosphere (the troposphere
layer). This makes the earth’s surface temperature warmer. The phenomenon is
caused by greenhouse gases that produced by nature or human activities. Unfortunately,
human activities which are not environmentally friendly actually producing
greenhouse gases excessively. As a result, more heat is trapped and makes the
earth warmer. This is what causes global warming. Greenhouse
gases are produced from human activities, including CO2, CFC, CH4, and etc.

b.      Global Warming.

Global warming is a state
where the temperature of the earth has increased compared to before. The
increase in temperature is caused by increased emissions of carbon dioxide gas
and other greenhouse gases. As a result, greenhouse gases will trap heat on
Earth so there is an increase in temperature. This ultimately affected the
climate that affected the changing weather patterns.

c.       Depletion of The Ozon Layer.

The ozone layer (O3) is
located in the stratosphere. It is useful to block out ultraviolet B (UV-B)
radiation from the sun. If the ozone layer has broken, then the earth will be
easily exposed to UVB radiation. UVB radiation is harmful because it can damage
the DNA sequence. In humans, UVB causes skin cancer and cataracts. Not only
humans, UVB is also harmful to other living things that potentially disrupt the
balance of the ecosystem. Greenhouse gases that cause ozone layer damage are

d.      Garbage.

Garbage also produces GRK
emissions in the form of methane gas although in small quantities. It is estimated
that 1 ton of solid garbage generates about 50 kg of methane gas. Human
activities always produce garbage. Garbage is a big problem faced by big cities
in Indonesia. According to Data from Ministry of the Environment says that in
1995 the average person in urban areas in Indonesia produced 0.8 kg of garbage
per day and continued to increase to 1 kg per person per day in 2000.

From the text above we know
that the main problem of climate change is Human activities.

2.3 Civic
Education View of Climate Change.

            According to first Pancasila which follows
“Ketuhanan yang maha esa” we know that earth
and all its contents is an entrust from god that needs to be preserved and its
benefits for human prosperity. A relationship between nature vandalism and
human right (In Indonesia we called HAM) is disturbing our environment can
influence our life sustainability. The disaster that caused by climate change
is very harmful for human life especially for a poor society. That’s why
climate change can lead us to human right abuses.

            According to Undang Undang No. 32
Tahun 2009 Pasal 1 Ayat (2) which follows “Perlindungan dan pengelolaan
lingkungan hidup adalah upaya sistematis dan terpadu yang dilakukan untuk
melestarikan fungsi lingkungan hidup dan mencegah terjadinya pencemaran
dan/atau kerusakan lingkungan hidup yang meliputi perencanaan, pemanfaatan,
pengendalian, pemeliharaan, pengawasan, dan penegakan hukum.”. The statement
means we as a creature believed by God are required to preserve nature, not to
destroy it. Those who damage the environment will be punished sufficiently.


2.4 Solution of Climate change

            Because the  main problem of
climate change is a human activities, people should be aware and start to
preserve the environment. Some solutions for climate change are :

Efficiency of Fossil Fuel.

According to www.
we should eliminating the burning of coal, oil and, finally, natural gas. This
is perhaps the most daunting challenge as rizher of richer nations literally
eat, wear, work, play, and citizens of developing nations want and arguably
deserve the same comforts from energy stored in such fuels.

From economic view, oil is the lubricant of the global
economy, hidden inside such as ubiquitous items as plastic and corn, and
fundamental to the transportation of both consumers and goods. The International
Energy Agency said “there is no solution for reducing dependence on fossil fuels
(carbon neutral biofuels drive up the price of food and lead to forest
destruction, and while nuclear does not emit greenhouse gases, it produces
radioactive junk) on every bit counts”.

We should try to employ other alternatives when
possible plant derived plastics, biodiesel, wind power and to invest in the
change, be it by divesting from oil stocks or investing in companies practicing
carbon capture and storage.

Infrastructure Upgrade.

Ministry of energy mineral resources Sudirman S said
“Indonesia is still dependent on fossil energy where it produces emissions of
carbon dioxide or large CO2. Especially coal is the largest
emitter”. According to Badan Pusat Statistik said “buildings worldwide
contribute around one third of all greenhouse gas emissions (40 percent in
Indonesia) even though investing in thicker insulation and other cost
effective”. That’s why we should upgrade our infrastructure to reduce CO2 gas
emissions because investing in new
infrastructure, or radically upgrading existing highways and transmission
lines, would help cut greenhouse gas emissions and drive economic growth in
developing countries.

Be Efficient.

A potentially simpler and even bigger impact can be
made by doing more with less. Citizens of many developed countries are
profligate waste of energy like leaving the lights on when not in a room. Good
driving and good car maintenance, such as making sure tires are properly
inflated can limit the amount of greenhouse gas emissions from a vehicle and,
perhaps more importantly, lower the frequency of payment at the pump.

The point about this solution is we must realize that
the energy savings are important to preserve our nature.

Stop Cutting Down Trees

Picked from www.
that every year 33 million acres of forests are cut down. Timber harvesting in
the tropics alone contributes 1.5 billion metric tons of carbon to the

According to Undang – Undang No. 26 tahun 2007 about
spatial planning and territory, 30 percent of the Law states that every city in
the spatial plan is obliged to allocate at least 30% of its space or territory
to green land, of which 20% is intended for public green lands that constitute
green open spaces owned and managed by the municipality and used for the
benefit of the public in general, and 10% is intended for private green space
on lands owned by private or public.

We should improving agricultural practices along with
paper recycling and forest management balancing the amount of wood taken out
with the amount of new trees growing could quickly eliminate this significant
chunk of emissions. We should be
careful when purchasing wood products, such as furniture or
flooring, buy used goods or, failing that, wood certified to have been
sustainably harvested. Indonesian and other countries forests are the lungs of
the earth, but they are also short for hope for limiting climate change.


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