Chapter of the whole population so as to

Chapter
Three: Methodology

3.1
Introduction

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The
chapter mainly focuses on the objectives of the research done, how
the research was carried out and why the methodology chosen was
deemed appropriate for this research. The chapter also gives detail
on the population identified for the research and why the sample
population was chosen. Further it discuss the pilot study,
questionnaire and feedback for this questionnaire is given by way of
analysis and findings. Finally, it gives details of the analysis on
the data collected thus forming the basis for the following chapter
in which the findings will be reported and discussed in detail.

3.2
Research Design

Research
Design is described as a framework that has been created to find
answers to research questions. According to Oso & Onen (2008)
research design is defined as the overall plan or strategy for
conducting or carrying out the research.

The
research was conducted so as to determine and examine the factors of
workforce diversity towards the performance of the employee in county
government of Nairobi. One of the tools used was the questionnaire
that aided in examining diversity in relation to work performance.
The researcher examined a sample that was representative of the whole
population so as to obtain a more in-depth and rich description. In
our research the design nature is descriptive, according to Yin
(1984) a descriptive design is adopted because it has the advantage
of using the questionnaires, observations and interviews without
necessarily having to change the environment of the study.

3.3
Target Population

Population
is considered as an entire group of individuals, events or objects
with common observable characteristics that is in accordance to
Mugenda and Mugenda (2003) but according to (Kothari, 2004),
population refers to an entire group of individuals, objectives or
items from which the researcher wants information.
Therefore
we can say that target population is the generalization of the units
for the a survey findings.
This
study targeted the county government of Nairobi due its unique
workforce that is drawn
from
all over Kenya and beyond and specifically, the County Assembly. From
an article on Daily Nation dated Thursday February 16th
2017, county that has over 14,000 workers, 8,400 have bare minimum
education standards and are unskilled and only 240 workers are
professionals.

3.4
Sampling

3.4.1
Sampling Frame

Sampling
Frame is a list of things that you draw a sample from or can be
described as is a list of all those within a population who can be
sampled out and should reflect the whole population.

A
good sample should be reflective on the whole population. Gay (1992)
suggested that 10 percent of accessible population is adequate to
serve as sample. Cooper and Schindler (2003) argued that if well
chosen, samples of 10% to 30% of a population could give reliable
findings.

3.4.2
Sampling Procedure

Our
respondents are employees in the county government of Nairobi. Proper
selection of respondent is essential for the study to achieve its
research objectives therefore candidates must meet the following two
conditions before qualified as valid respondents.

Employees
working at the county government of Nairobi;

Currently
employed and working in the management departments.

3.3.3
Sampling Technique

There
are two major categories of sampling technique: probability and
non-probability sampling. According to (Zikmund, 2003) probability
sampling is used when every element of the population has a known,
non-zero probability of selection. On the other hand,
non-probability sampling is adopted when elements of the population
do not have a known or predetermined chance of being selected as
subject for the purpose of survey (Sekaran, 2003). There are few
types of probability sampling techniques:

Stratified
sampling.

Simple
random sampling.

Cluster
sampling.

Systematic
sampling.

Non-probability
sampling is used, instead of probability sampling because of
unavailability of sampling list which defines every element in a
population. The following are types of non-probability sampling
techniques:

Convenience
sampling.

Quota
sampling.

Judgment
sampling.

In
this research, types of non-probability sampling that were used are
convenience sampling and judgmental sampling. In judgmental sampling
the researcher targets a group of people believed to be reliable for
the study. Distribution of the questionnaires was done, a valid
respondents had to met the two conditions needed in order to be a
respondent, they were asked to fill up the questionnaire form that is
distributed directly to them. A total of 500 questionnaires were
distributed.

3.3.4
Sampling Size

Sample
size is the number of respondents included in a research. In this
research, we have obtained a sample size of 500 to represent the
targeted population.

3.5
Data Collection and Collection Tools

3.5.1
Data Collection Tools

The
research employed the use of questionnaires as the main tool for
carrying out this research and as well the use of one on one
interviews. From preliminary investigations, shows employees with
adequate knowledge and background were capable of responding to a
questionnaire in a favorable manner.

The
reasons for using questionnaires is that it enabled the respondents
to express themselves more freely and clearly, it enabled the
responses to be gathered in standardized way, it saved time by
enabling information to be gathered within the shortest possible time
and also that it facilitated the collection of potential information
from a sizable sample of respondents. The questions consisted of 4-
point likert scale where the respondent was expected to strongly
agree, agree, disagree and strongly disagree with carefully
constructed that ranged from very positive to very negative toward an
attitudinal phenomenon. Observations were also made in the course of
the study that backed up the research findings.

3.5.2
Data Collection

According
to Cooper and Schindler, 2006 data collection is done through two
main sources namely primary data and secondary data. Both sources of
data will be used to answer this research’s objectives and research
questions.
In
our case primary data was collected directly from respondents through
the use of questionnaires but also interviews were conducted
especially with senior staff since the number involved was small and
manageable while for the secondary data was collected from the human
resource manager office.

3.6
Pilot Study

Pilot
study is a standard scientific tool for soft research, that allow
researchers to conduct a preliminary analysis before committing to a
full-blown study.
After
the design of questionnaire, reliability analysis was done to ensure
measurements are reliable for our research that is, a survey done on
a small group of respondents to make sure the questions being asked
in the questionnaire are reliable. Fifty (50) sets of questionnaires
were
distributed
and in return the respondents were asked to comment and suggest
changes to the questionnaire. The feed back aided in modification of
some of the items to in order improve their clarity.

Pilot
study minimizes the mistakes made in the questionnaire as well as the
difficulties before making progress to distribute it out to the 500
targeted respondents. Reliability of the questionnaire is tested as
well using reliability test with the help of Statistical Package for
Social Science (SPSS) software.