CHAPTER1 aim of the organization as it enhance

                                                     CHAPTER1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Introduction

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 (Nadler & Nadler)2012 assert that HRM
development includes training. The purpose of the training is to increase the
performance of the individuals working in the organization. Training is seen as
in many terms and also seen as a treatment of all the hurdles. Mostly all of
the individuals gets training in the starting of their careers the individuals
rely on this training to improve their currents skills and learn new skills
(Thang, N.N, 2010). Training is very important in achieving the aim of the
organization as it enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of individuals and
increases the organizational performance. The effect of usefulness
of training for the individuals on the relationship between knowledge worker future
orientation and knowledge worker context performance. It has been a topic of
attentiveness in the world of research for many years. The study examines that
training is aimed to train individuals, enhance their present work capacity and
should coincide with strategic planning organizational. Training for the
organizations is an important point for future work demand. It questions how
the employee considers this training as useful for them.

1.2 Gap

gap is when we study the organizations there is a critical gap in the HRM
practices, implications for theory and HRM literature.  Theoretically our study will fill the gap in
the existing literature and provide some new insights on the constructs which
has been less studied. Empirically, it will guide the organizations about the
training programs which will affect the relationship between the knowledge
worker future orientation and the context performance og knowledge worker.

1.3 Significance or importance

Training is critical for
organizational development and success. It is fruitful to both individuals and
supervisors of an organization. An individual will become more well organized and
high yeilding if he is trained well. Training is given on four basic grounds:

New candidates who join an organization are given training.
It up to date  them with the
organizational mission, vision, rules and regulations and the working
The existing employees are trained to refresh and
enhance their knowledge.
Training is given to cope up with those changes if any updating
and changing take place in technology. For example, purchasing new
equipment, changes in technique of production, computer impartment. The
employees are trained about use of new equipment’s and work methods.
When promotion and career growth becomes important.
Training is given so that employees are prepared to share the
responsibilities of the higher level job

1.4 Objectives of the research

·       To
examine how training mediates between knowledge worker future orientation and
context performance.

·       To
Accessing the impact of these training on task performance.

1.5 Research question:

1: Up to what Future orientation
will positively relate to context performance?

2: Up to what extent training
mediate the relationship between future orientation and context performance?










                                          CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

Theoretical foundation of the study

This study will be lead
to by both learning theory, human capital theories ad socio cognitive theory.
For an organization to smartly achieve its goals, it will manage the human
resources which are available to them properly. Human resource management in
many 15 organizations is the focus for a wide ranging debate concerning the
nature of the contemporary employment relationship it’s According to Armstrong
(1996). That’s why the one of the key elements in the grouping and management
of work organizations are managing human resource. In the era of technological
change over time, new ways of creating and delivering goods and services are
always uncover. But whatever resources are used, it is still required to ensure
the interest of both employees and employers is met. Learning in the workplace
is very important as it influences the way training and development is
approached. Learning is the process of acquiring knowledge, understanding,
skills and values in order to adapt to the environment in which we live. (Gayne
1996). Several theories relating to how people learn exist and each theory
relates to different aspects of the learning process. The reinforcement theory
puts focus on that people which are motivated to perform or avoid certain
behaviors because of past outcomes that have resulted from those behaviors.
From a training view, reinforcement theory suggests that for learners to
acquire knowledge, change behavior, or modify skills, the trainer needs to
identify what outcomes the learner finds most positive and negative. Trainers
then need to link these outcomes to learners acquiring knowledge, skills and
changing behavior. The social learning theory emphasizes that people learn by
observing other persons (models) whom they believe are credible and
knowledgeable. This theory also recognizes that behavior which is reinforced or
rewarded tends to be repeated . Goal theory assumes that behavior results from
a person?s conscious goals and intentions. Goals influence 16 behavior by
directing energy and attention, sustaining effort over time, and motivating the
person to develop strategies for goal attainment. Need theory helps explain
value that a person places on a certain outcome. A need is a deficiency that a
person is experiencing at any point in time. Need theories suggest that to
motivate learning, trainers should identify trainees? needs and communicate how
training program content relates to fulfilling these needs (McGraw-Hill 1996).
Another theory guiding this study on training and development is the human
capital theory. Schultz, (1961) defined human capital theory as the knowledge
and skills obtained by people as capital in the process of vocational and
technical education. Human capital theory shows that individuals and the whole
society gain economic benefits from investments in people (Sweetland, 1996).
The emphasis of human capital theory is how education adds on efficiency and
productivity of workers by increasing level of cognitive stock of economically
productive human capability which is a product of innate abilities and gamble
in human beings (Okemakinde and Olaniyan, 2008). Investing in human capital,
just like investing on physical capital is vital in adding to productivity of
individuals in terms of labor. This develops the labor force both qualitatively
and quantitatively, mainly because a qualified labor force increases
productivity and brings investments to entrepreneurship. Becker, (1993)
identify that education and training are the most important components of human
capital investment and that the income of a better educated and trained person
is normally higher than the average wage rate. Dubra, (2010) states that there
are three types of training or 17 education closely related to return rate and
human capital which are: education at school, training at work place and other
knowledge. Education at school gives one knowledge in the institution that id definite
its activity on training process and offers education as a product. Training at
work place gives new skills and improves gained skills at workplace. Other
knowledge includes any other information obtained by the individual to improve
their own economic situation. Black and Lynch (1996) citing Bishop (1994) did a
study in America on the impact of human capital investments such as training
provide by the supervisors and development, and finish that training and
development raises subjective productivity and performance by almost 16%.

worker future orientation

The concept of KWs was
introduced by Peter Drucker back in 1959 when he identified the change that was
taking part in the modern organizations where manual work was no longer the
norm; instead the center of gravity of the organization had shifted to
knowledge work. Drucker defined a knowledge worker (KW) as the one that “puts
to work what he has between his ears rather than brawn of his muscle or the
skill of his hands” (Drucker, 2007, p. 3). The KWs are  those who carry out the “knowledge work”, one
of cognitive nature rather than physical nature (Alvesson, 2000). Opposite to
the manual worker (MW), the KW does not generate a physical product but
knowledge, ideas and information. Olomolaiye & Egbu (2004) describe KWs as
those who receive information, admit it, decide what to do and execute the
related decisions. They are problem solvers that depend on their intelligence
rather than on manual skills (Muo, 2013)

Perceived trainer performance

is the process in which people select, organize and interpret information
gathered by their senses in order to understand the world around them (Fluker
and Turner, 2000). So the perceived trainer performance means how the trainees
make their brains for the trainer teaching style, his methodology. If the style
of the trainer is well and good then the participant will surely perceive the
method of the trainer in a positive way. The style of the trainer matters a lot
while we are highly motivated to see ourselves somewhere in the future.

2.3 perceived usefulness of

          The participants
perceive the training as providing them with the knowledge and the skill                    and improve their efficiency
within the organization and the other concern is they perceive training as
contributing to their career opportunities. (Lee, S.H and Pershing, J.A,2002)
the individuals who are highly motivated, who has high attention to be
something in his/her future he/she will perceive the benefits of the training
in a positive way. He will pay attention to the benefits of the training
provided to them.

perceived efficiency of training

             It relates to the organization and
the mode of the course. It refers to an evaluation about the physical location.
(Podsakoff,P.M,2003). According to Dessler (2001),
employee training and certification are used to teach newcomers or veterans
skills needed to perform their job. In fact, it refers to the process by which
current performance of employees is enhanced in accordance with the company’s
goals. This includes programs taking place within the organization (internal
training, courses), professional programs, certifications, etc.In order to
select the most effective program the process of training should include five
key activities: determine the need, set the goals, design, implement and

With this method, the impact of employee training is measured on the basis of four

criteria –
related to the question of how employees liked the training and how much
they believe they have learned during its realization. Based on this
criteria, the evaluation is carried out so that at the end of the training
participants fill out a questionnaire.

criteria –
refers to what the students have learned during the training and what kind
of knowledge and skill set they are able to demonstrate after it.

criteria –
related to changes in the behavior of employees shown after completing the

criteria –
related to the question of whether the training achieved the desired
results, and whether the results of the training will lead to an increased
productivity and improved performance of employee.

Context performance

Performance is the accomplishment of particular task
measured against predetermined or identified standards of accuracy,
completeness, cost and speed. Cooke (2000). In an employment contract,
performance is deemed to be the achievement of an assignment laid down under
the contract. Efficiency and effectiveness are components of performance as
measured by the standards set by the organization. Employee performance is
related with quantity of output, timeliness of output, quality of output,
attendance on the job, efficiency of the work finished and effectiveness of
work completed. Mathis & Jackson (2009). Performance is the achievement of
a given duty measured against predetermined principles of accuracy,
completeness, cost and speed. 8 The performance of any organization is
dependent on the quality of its workforce. There are some expectations from the
employees regarding their performance. When they perform up to the set
standards and meet organizational expectations they are assumed to be good
performers. The general view is that employee?s performance is influenced by
such factors as salary, training and development both on the job and off the
job; working conditions among others (Obisi 2011). Recruiting and selection of
employees with high potential is not a guarantee that they will perform with
effectiveness. If they do not have the knowledge of what to do or how to do it
then can never perform effectively even if they wanted to. Therefore,
organizations need to train and develop employees so as to equip them with the
know how of what and how to do things for effective performance. Good
performance is vital for the going- concern of any organization. Poor
performance may lead to capital losses and eventually the collapse of an
organization. Employee performance is higher when workers are happy and content.
The performance of employees is generally rated in terms of output. According
to Kennedy et al. (1992), employee performance is measured against performance
standards that are set by the organization. When measuring performance, a
number of factors are taken into account, for example productivity, efficiency,
effectiveness, quality and profitability. Profitability is the earning of
profits consistently within a given period of time. Stoner, (1996) describes
efficiency as the ability to produce expected results using minimum resources
as possible while effectiveness refers to ability of employees to meet desired
objectives. Productivity is the ratio of output produced to that of input used.
It is also a measure of how much output is produced per unit of employed
resources (Lipsey, 1989). Quality, 9 according to Stoner, (1996) is
increasingly achieving better products and services at a progressively more
competitive price.

Relationship between Training, future orientation and context performance

according to Serkan and Emir (2014), should be planned in such a way that it
results in the commitment of the organization. Mthokozisi and Clifford (2015)
on the hand proposed that commitment of employees is as a result of some human
resource practices such as career development and training opportunities as
well as promotions and succession planning. When these practices are well
catered for, they bring higher employees performance. Although the above
literature gives enough evidence to buttress the positive effects of training
and development on employee performance, Uma and Murali (2016) outlined that
management of organizations most often than not hesitates when investing in its
human resource due to diverse reasons. Sometimes, after effective and timely
training programs are given employees, they intend to cash it for the sake of
their own employment opportunity and market value or they are ready to change
jobs simply because of increase in salaries, which makes a firm’s investment in
training a cost rather than been profitable.








            IV                                                                                                       DV





                                                         Theoretical model


knowledge worker future orientation will be positively relate to context

H2: Perceived
trainer performance will mediate the positive relationship knowledge worker
future orientation and context performance

H3: Perceived
usefulness of training will mediate the positive relationship knowledge worker
future orientation and context performance

H4: Perceived
efficiency of training will mediate the positive relationship knowledge worker
future orientation and context performa








3.1 Introduction

chapter provides a description of procedures to be use in carrying out the
study. It describes the research design, target population, sample size and
sampling procedures, data collection instruments and procedures, reliability
and validity of instruments that were going to be used as well as the other
data processing and presentation methods/data analysis techniques.

3.2 Research strategy

research is quantitative. The survey strategy will be used to generalize the
findings (Floyd, 2002, p.178). the survey strategy is chosen, as the study’s aim
is to generalize the findings on the three research objectives: (1) to test if
knowledge worker orientation has a positive effect on task performance 2) to
test if these three factors mediate the relationship between knowledge worker
and task performance (3) to explore knowledge worker role its relationship with
the population.


3.3 Research approach

research projects involve the use of a theory. According to Saunders et al. (2011),
there are two types of research approaches, deductive and inductive. This
research proposal is deductive approach. A deductive research method requires
the development of a conceptual and theoretical structure before being tested
through empirical examination (John and Phil,



3.4 Research Design

study will be conducted using descriptive survey design. According to Orodho
(2005), descriptive survey can be used to describe some aspects of population
like opinions, attitudes and beliefs. Best and Kahn (2005), state that surveys
gather data at a particular point in time with the intention of describing the nature
of existing conditions. The purpose of this survey is to gather detailed
information in order to provide an insight on the relationship between training
and knowledge worker future orientation and knowledge worker task performance
in pharmaceutical industry.

3.5 Target Population

 According to (Kothari, 2004), target
population was the larger group to which one is hoping to apply findings. The
study will target 210 pharmacists working in for the participation in the
research study.

3.6 Unit of analysis

unit of analysis will be individuals like doctors, nurses, hospital
administration staff etc

3.7 Sample Size

 Simple random sampling technique will be used.
According to Borg and Gall (1989), a sample size of any study should be based
on what a researcher considers being statistical and practicable. For this
study, a sample of 210 employees will be selected. Random sampling will be used
in selecting the number of branches that will be involved in the study. This
will allow all members of the population to have an equal chance of being

3.8 Sample frame

Target Population                                   

pharmacies                   144

pharmacies              40

Clinics                                         15

tech drug dealers                  11

Total                                            210

3.9 Measures

the measurement the questionnaire will be adopted. Whose scales are available.
The survey items were provided using 5 point likert scale.


3.10 Data Collection

closed questionnaire will be used in data collection for the study.
Questionnaires are ideal for survey study as postulated by (Mugenda and
Mugenda, 1999) and they are widely used to obtain information about the
knowledge worker future orientation and knowledge worker task performance. The
research questionnaires will be developed to fit the research design and the
plan of data analysis so that the data to be collected will facilitate
establishing the perceived relationship of training and employee performance.
The questionnaire will consist of two sections. Section A will have general
demographic information about the respondents like age, sex, grade etc. while
section B will cover on perception of employees of training and their

3.11 Statistical tools

reliability, validity, inter-correlation and hierarchical regression analysis
will be computed using SPSS.

questionnaire design

“The survey
questionnaire is the conduit through which information flows from the world of
everyday behaviour and opinion into the world of research and analysis” (Czaja
and Blair, 2005, p.300) All of the questions from the first two pages of the
questionnaire have been designed using a likert scale. The
purpose of the statements in a Likert question is to represent different
aspects of the same attitude (Brace, 2005). Five points within the scale
have been chosen, as they give enough discrimination for most purposes
and respondents can easily understand those (Brace, 2005). Moreover, the
choice of an even number of points will not force a response to go in one direction
or another.


Further research

propose that future research should focus on the integrity of the medical
industry functions scale and also the scale of the training. The study should
focus on the full four level of training.


References :

The Factors Determine Knowledge Workers Productivity within the Irish Industry
Raul Fernandez Gomez August 2013

Author Aidah Nassazi Title
Effects of training on Employee performance.
Evidence from Uganda Year 2013

Impact of Training and Development on Organizational Performance By Raja Abdul
Ghafoor Khan, Furqan Ahmed Khan,Dr. Muhammad Aslam Khan

4: International Journal of Science and
Research (IJSR)

Influence of Training and Development on the Performance of Employees in
Research Institutes in Kenya 2013

AND QUALITY OF WORK LIFE Ms. Pallavi P. Kulkarni, 2013

6: International Journal of Academic Research
in Business and Social Sciences International Journal of Academic Research in
Business and Social Sciences The
Impact of Training and Development on Employees Performance and
Productivity of United Bank Limited Peshawar City, KPK, Pakistan 2014

ON EMPLOYEES’ PERFORMANCE 1,*Stephen Tetteh, 2Wu Ci Sheng, 3Liu Duan Yong,
4Opata Christian Narh

and 5Opata Emmanuel Sackitey


8: European Journal of Business and Management ISSN 2222-1905 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2839
(Online) Vol.5, No.2, 2013


NORGES HANDELSHØYSKOLE Bergen, Spring 2014 Are knowledge workers more
intrinsically motivated than manual workers?


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