Classification of nanomaterials:
They are hallow cylinders made of carbon atoms. They can also be filled and
sealed, forming test tubes or potential drug delivery devices.
Glowing silica nano wire is wraped around a single stand of human hair. It
looks delicate. It is about five times smaller than virus applications for nano
wires include the early sensing of breast and ovarian malignancies.
The honey comb mesh behind this tiny carbon cantilever is surface of fly’s eye.
Cantilevers are beams anchored at only one end. In nano world they function as
sensors ideal for detecting the presence of extremely small molecules in
Nanoshells are hollow silica spheres covered with gold. Scientists can attach
antibodies to their surfaces enabling the shells to target certain shells such
as cancer cells. Nano shells one day also are filled with drug containing
dots- Quantum dots are miniscule semiconductor particles that can serve as
sign pots of certain type of cells or molecules in the body.
pores- Nano pores have cancer research and treatment applications.
Engineered into particles, they are holes that are so tiny that DNA molecules
can pass through them one strand at a time allowing for highly precise and
efficient DNA sequencing. By engineering nanopores into surface of drug capsule
that are only slightly larger than medicines molecular structure, drug
manufacturers can also use nanopores to control rate of drug’s diffusion in
nanoparticles- These nanoparticles seen in transmission electron micrograph
image, they have solid core. Researchs at north western university are using
gold particles to develop ultra sensitive detection systems for DNA and protein
markers associated with many forms of cancer including breast, prostate cancer.
Carbon nanotubes: Carbon nanotubes can be modified to circulate
well within the body. Such modifications can be accomplished with covalent or
non covalent bonding. Modifications can increase or decrease circulation time
within the body. Carbon nanotubes no significant toxicity when they have modified
so as to be soluble in aqueous body type fluids. They enter readily into
Cancer cells in tumor are larger than normal
cells and also exhibit leakage. Large molecules which circulate slowly can leak
into and accumulate in cancer cell. Carbon nanotubes carrying active agents
have been demonstrated in animal studies to do this. Researches have also used
carbon tubes to deliver the precursors of active drug which they call a
prodrug. eg: Cisplatin 12.