Closure spread out the page making it cluttered.

Closure as mentioned in the
example earlier is when gaps are naturally filled in when information is
missing. The human eye fills in “the gaps with lines, color or patterns from
the surrounding area to complete the image.” (Soegaard, 2017). In web design,
closure can be used to create interesting logos that will be face of the
website. A lot of existing companies already use closure in their logo’s such
as EA or IBM. Closure can be achieved using negative and positive spaces,
contrast between colours and elements in the background and foreground. Using
closure in design can allow designs to be simpler and sleeker.

Proximity is the space between
elements, objects that are close together will seem to be part of a group and
those that are further spaced apart are perceived as separate. This principle
applies even if the elements aren’t similar. Kepes states that words read are
“segregated wholes because their letters are closer to another than are the
last and first letter of two words.” (Kepes, 1944). Proximity can be used to
group together objects to create complex images. In web design, proximity can
be used to group elements together to create a more organised website. To do
this, designers should take the advantage of using white space. White space can
group together similar elements such as the navigation bar or contact
information. Similar grouping of elements has a more “visually pleasing effect”
to the viewer rather than having all these elements spread out the page making
it cluttered.  (Soegaard, 2017). Using
white space to separate groups of elements is also important to design, this
allows elements on the pages to be quickly identified and “does not overwhelm
the user with information.” (Staff, 2010).

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Lastly, figure and ground are “the fundamental law of
gestalt that helps us identify objects (figure) as distinct from their
background (ground).” (Graham, 2008). Figure and ground is dependent on the
user being able to distinguish the foreground separately from the background.
For example, dark text on a dark text is indistinguishable and will lack
clarity. On the other hand, using a dark text on a lighter background creates a
contrast and allows the text to be easily readable. However, there are is a
degree when contrast is legible and illegible, using a bright neon colour as
the background may feel visually unpleasing to look at rather than having a
neutral colour. Having readable text Is important in web design, allowing users
to find information that they are looking for easily. Figure and ground can
also be used to separate links from text, this can be done by having links be a
different colour than the text and having visited links another colour. Having
an active link in the navigation bar a different colour from the rest is an
example of figure and ground, the contrast between the colours will provide
feedback to the user of which page they are on.