Do Contents……………………………………………………………………… Page 1Acknowledgements…………………………………………………………………… Page 2Testable Question, Purpose,

Do High-Potassium Drinks Have The Highest Conductance of Electrolytes?ChemistryExperimental Investigation___________________________________________Signature of Sponsoring Teacher___________________________________________Signature of School Science Fair Coordinator TeacherTable of ContentsTable of Contents……………………………………………………………………… Page 1Acknowledgements…………………………………………………………………… Page 2Testable Question, Purpose, Hypothesis………….………………………………….. Page 3Research………….…………………………………………………………………… Pages 4-5Materials…………..………………………………………………………………….. Page 6Procedure……………………………………………………………………………… Pages 7 -11Data and Results……………………………………………………………………… Pages 12-16Conclusion……..……………………………………………………………………… Page 17Reflection……………………………………………………………………………… Pages 18-19Application……..…………………………………………………………………….. Page 19Reference List………………………………………………………………………… Pages 20-21 AcknowledgementsI would like to thank my parents. My dad and mom were very supportive throughout my experiment. They gave me ideas for my science fair and bought my materials. I would also like to thank all of my friends for helping me revise my writing in my science fair write up. I would also like to give a special thanks to my amazing science teacher, Ms. Machado. She also helped me revise my write up, and led me through the challenging steps through my experiment. Testable QuestionDoes the amount of potassium affect the amount of conductance in a drink? Which drink has the most conductance?PurposeI wanted to find which drink had the highest conductance and if the amount of potassium affected that number. HypothesisIf the amount of potassium in a drink is high, then it will have more conductance. The higher the amount of potassium, the higher the conductance. I hypothesize that orange juice will have the highest conductance, because it has the most potassium per ounce. ResearchIf you drink too many electrolytes, it can lead to high sodium levels and other risks. Since potassium is similar to sodium, it might have the same affects on people as sodium (Morgan, 2017). Potassium included in an electrolyte, so I know my hypothesis is reasonable and educated (“Electrolytes,” 2017). An electrolyte disorder can also occur when the levels of electrolytes in your body are too high or low (Holland, 2017). If your body does not have an even balance of electrolytes, your body will not function properly. In fact, you can get hypernatremia, hyperkalemia, hypercalcemia, and magnesium problems from drinking too many electrolyte drinks (Holland, 2017). Dr. Julie Silver from Harvard claims, “If you are exercising for less than an hour, you don’t need a sports drink. Sports drinks were not designed for the reputational athlete or spectator.” (“Are Sports Drinks Bad,” 2017).In your body, electrolytes conduct electrical impulses (“Fluid and Electrolyte Balance,” 2017). Electrolytes affect the amount of water and acidity in your body, muscle contractions, and other important body needs. When you sweat, the amount of electrolytes in your body start to diminish. By drinking electrolyte drinks, you can replace the number of electrolytes in your body. Usually, electrolytes include chloride, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, and potassium (“Electrolytes,” 2017). So, since potassium is in electrolytes, I can conclude that the amount of potassium will affect the amount of electrolytes.Tap water, distilled water, and Monster Energy do not have potassium. Gatorade has 3.75 milligrams of potassium per ounce, Powerade has 3 milligrams of potassium per ounce, and orange juice has 56.25 milligrams of potassium per ounce.  Materials1 digital multimeter5 feet of bare, 24 gauge copper wire1 9 V battery1 9 V battery clip3 alligator clip leads1 plastic straws10 glass or ceramic bowls10 labels1 roll of paper towels20 ounces of orange juice20 ounces of Monster Energy20 ounces of Gatorade20 ounces of Powerade60 ounces (1 gallon) of distilled water20 ounces of tap water Experimental ProcedureSetup: Conductance SensorGather all materials.From a drinking straw, cut a two inch piece.Cut two pieces of 5 inch-long copper wire.Wrap the two pieces of wire around the sides of the straw, with about 2 inch-long strands left. Wrap the wires tightly around the straw. This lets the current to flow between the copper wires.If the wires touch, the conductance sensor will not work. Touching the wires will blow the fuse in your multimeter. Basically, don’t let the wires touch each other.Setup: Conductance Measuring CircuitConnect the multimeter probes.For now, the multimeter should be off. Plug the black probe into port “COM.”Plug the red probe into port “V?MA.”Assemble your circuit. Read the notes below first!Always keep the various wires a safe distance away from each other. If you don’t, you could risk damaging your multimeter. When you are not using your multimeter, make sure it is off. This will also help prevent accidental damage.If the colored insulation part is connected to your circuit, it will not work. This is why the alligator clips should always be connected to the metal parts of the wire.Use twist ties to keep your work neater. The twist ties will help avoid short circuits because the metal parts are less likely to touch each other.Connect the snap connector to the 9 V battery.Connect the red wire (from the battery snap connector) to the red multimeter probe.Connect the red multimeter probe to the red wire from the battery snap connector with the red alligator clip.Connect the black multimeter probe to one copper wire of the conductance sensor with the black alligator clip.Connect the other copper wire of the conductance sensor to the black wire (from the battery snap connector) with the green alligator clip. Setup: DrinksClean one bowl, dry it off, and rinse it with distilled water, and dry it off again.Repeat step 1 for all of the other bowls.With masking tape, label the six drink bowls (Distilled Water, Tap Water, Gatorade, Powerade, Monster Energy, and Orange Juice). Label the three distilled water rinse bowls (dH2O Rinse 1, dH2O Rinse 2, and dH2O Rinse 3) Last but not least, label the tap water rinse bowl. Use the last four bowls to clean the drink bowls between drinks.After labeling each substance, pour them into the correct bowl. Make sure that the liquids are at room temperature. Pour the same amount of substance for each bowl, so that it is covering the conductance sensor straw completely.  Data: Measuring the Conductance of Distilled WaterSet your multimeter to the 200 ?A range (200?; the upper-right green part), as shown in the picture on the right. Only use this to measure distilled water, as it is high-sensitivity level.Set the conductance sensor in the distilled water and make sure the straw is completely underwater.Quickly read the current on the multimeter, take the conductance sensor out immediately, and gather an average number of the range found. Put the data in the data table. Put the units in microamps; one millionth of an amp (?A). There’s no need to wash your bowl, as you are using distilled water. Data: Measuring the Conductance of Tap WaterNext, set your multimeter to the 200 mA range (200m; the right green side), as shown in the picture on the right. Only use this to measure the other drinks, as it can measure higher current values.Now place the conductance sensor in the tap water so that it is as underwater as it was in the distilled water test.Record the average current shown on the multimeter. This time, make sure that you record the units in milliamps (mA) in the table.Remove the excess drops of tap water on the sensor. Then, rinse the sensor in the three distilled water rinse bowls. Data: Measuring the Conductance of Sports DrinksAfter cleaning the sensor, submerge it in the Gatorade and measure the current. There’s no need to change the multimeter dial, as it is the same for all the sports drinks. Record the average current  Record the current in milliamps in the data table. Clean the sensor by rinsing it in the tap water bowl, and then the three distilled water rinse bowls.Repeat steps one and two for Powerade, Monster Energy, and orange juice. Remember to record each one in the data table in milliamps (mA).Clean the sensor in tap water and three distilled water bowls.Repeat all of the “Measuring the Conductance” sections two more times to record three total measurements per substance.Remember to correctly change the ranges as you go for each substance. Also, for each trial, remember to submerge the conductance sensor as far as you did the other ones. Last but not least, make sure to record all data with the correct units in the data table with the correct units.Conclusion: Finding the ConductanceAverage your current measurements across the three trials for each liquid.Before calculating the equation, convert all of the current measurements to amps (A).Microamps to amps: ?A1,000,000 = AMilliamps to amps: mA1,000 = AFind the conductance for each substance with the equation G = I ÷V , while G stands for the conductance (in S, siemens).I is the average current that you calculated. Convert the current to amps first.Use 9 V as V, voltage in your calculations.Which drink has the highest conductance? Data and ResultsData Table ExplanationThe table on page 14 shows all of the data collected when experimenting. The first column is the substance. The substances tested were distilled water, tap water, Gatorade, Powerade, Monster Energy, and orange juice. Distilled water was measured in microamps, and the other drinks were measured in milliamps. However, the average was changed to amps so that all of the drinks had the same units. Orange juice had the highest conductance and distilled water had the lowest. As you can see, Powerade, Gatorade, and Monster Energy do not “follow” my conclusion, but distilled water, tap water, and orange juice do (See conclusion for more information). The table is used to compare data easily. Data Graph ExplanationsData Graph AThe first graph on page 15 compares each drink and their conductance. You can easily see that orange juice has the highest conductance, because the bar is much higher than the others. As said above, distilled water was measured in microamps, because the conductance is so low. The graph and results prove that it is the lowest.Data Graph BThe second graph on page 15 compares each drink and their potassium. Again, orange juice has the most potassium, which explains why it has the highest conductance. Distilled water, tap water, and Monster Energy have no potassium, which is why they have a pretty low conductance.Data Graph CThe graph on page 16 compares conductance and potassium. Every drink but orange juice has a low conductance and is close to the origin of the graph. However, orange juice is the tallest and farthest away from the origin because it had the highest conductance and amount of potassium. Data TableSubstanceCurrentAverageAverage (amps)Amount of Potassium (mg per oz.)Conductance (G = I÷V)(Siemens)Distilled Water27.4 ?A26.7 ?A0.000026700.0000029726.7 ?A26.0 ?ATap Water2.98 mA3.03 mA0.0030300.00003373.05 mA3.07 mAGatorade18.1 mA17.8 mA0.01783.750.00197817.6 mA17.7 mAPowerade26.6 mA26.57 mA0.0265730.00295226.7 mA26.4 mAMonster Energy19.2 mA19.53 mA0.0195300.0021719.8 mA19.6 mAOrange Juice40.6 mA40.56 mA0.0405656.250.00450740.8 mA40.3 mA Data Graph AData Graph B Data Graph C ConclusionMy science fair project is about different drinks. I wanted to find which drink had the most conductance and if the amount of potassium affected that number. The amount of electrolytes was measured in each drink. Then, the amount of electrolytes was in an equation to find the conductance of each substance.I hypothesized that the drink with the most potassium would have the most conductance. I hypothesized that orange juice would have the most conductance, because it had the most milligrams of potassium per ounce (3.375 milligrams). I tested my hypothesis by measuring the conductance in each drink three times. To measure the conductance, I used a conductance sensor and micrometer. I noticed that orange juice has the most electrolytes by an outstanding amount. My hypothesis was proven mostly correct. My data proves this because my hypothesis “applied” to three out of six drinks. The only three drinks that my hypothesis was proved incorrect was Gatorade, Powerade, and Monster Energy. Monster Energy had no potassium, yet still had a pretty high conductance. I found that the conductance for Powerade is 0.002952 siemens and has 3 milligrams of potassium per ounce. Gatorade is 0.001978 siemens and has 3.75 milligrams of potassium per ounce. These numbers completely contradict my hypothesis. However, orange juice does have the highest conductance of 0.004507. All of the drinks conductances make sense and prove my hypothesis except for Gatorade, Powerade, and Monster Energy. ReflectionIn all, my test results and performance were generally fair. I think my results were pretty accurate, but there might’ve been some possible causes of error that occurred. For instance, the conductance sensor might’ve been too high or low compared to others (even though it was roughly held at the bottom of the bowl for each trial). Also, the amount of each drink for each trial might have been slightly different for each trial. The multimeter jumped between a range of numbers when measuring the amount of electrolytes. However, to prevent the data from being too inaccurate, the average numbers were recorded in the data table. Additionally, the temperature of the orange juice might’ve been different then the other drinks. This is because it was in the fridge. All of the other drinks were set out the night before. Orange juice was almost room temperature, but not as much as the other drinks. Since the temperature might have been slightly different, this could have affected my results. There is also a possible chance that the multimeter was read wrong, but this is why three trials were performed.If this experiment was repeated, I would add other drinks such as Kool-Aid or apple juice. Soda would also be a good substance to test because so many people drink it, and it might have certain health effects. If the health effects were studied, it could impact one’s lifestyle greatly. If this experiment could be repeated, it would be interesting to test caffeine vs. conductance. Could the higher the caffeine, the higher the conductance be proven? It would be cool if we could compare the amount of electrolytes in a drink to the amount of electrolytes in a typical human. There are so many other factors that could be changed if this experiment was repeated. For example, would conductance be affected by sugar, potassium, calories, caffeine, sodium, and carbohydrates? It would be interesting to test these because you could find a common drink that had the highest conductance out of all the factors. ApplicationMany people suffer from sicknesses and diseases like hypernatremia, hyperkalemia, hypercalcemia every day. This experiment could help the field of science because scientists might be able to explore more about these diseases and how they work. They could explore how each electrolyte drink affects the disease. Additionally, this experiment could be used in a doctor’s office or hospital because of these diseases. The doctors might be able to find a cure or stop people who are getting sick with this information. A doctor could tell one with electrolyte overdose to stay away from some electrolyte drinks, especially orange juice. A doctor could use this information and tell one with electrolyte underdose to drink high-electrolyte drinks, like orange juice. This experiment could be a sign or warning to others to help prevent deaths from electrolyte overdose/underdose. One affected by the disease could be impacted by the results of this experiment. Reference ListAre Sports Drinks Bad For You? Video file. Retrieved November 12, 2017, fromhttps://www.health.harvard.edu/staying-healthy/are-sports-drinks-bad-for-youGoogle Dictionary. (n.d.). Retrieved November 12, 2017, from https://www.google.com/search?rlz=1CAACAV_enUS700US701&q=DictionaryHolland, K. (2017, July 18). All About Electrolyte Disorders. Retrieved November 12, 2017, from https://www.healthline.com/health/electrolyte-disordersMcAllister, J. (2017, October 03). Negative Effects of Drinking Too Many Electrolytes. Retrieved November 12, 2017, fromhttps://www.livestrong.com/article/507396-negative-effects-of-drinking-too-many-electolytes/Electrolytes: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. (2017, November 6). Retrieved November 12,2017, from https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002350.htmFluid and Electrolyte Balance: MedlinePlus. (2017, November 6). Retrieved November 12, 2017,from https://medlineplus.gov/fluidandelectrolytebalance.htmlMorgan, S. (2017, October 03). Similarities Between Magnesium, Calcium, Potassium &Sodium. Retrieved November 12, 2017, from https://www.livestrong.com/article/454337-similarities-between-magnesium-calcium-potassium-sodium/Mortensen, K. (n.d.). What Happens if You Deplete All of the Electrolytes in Your Body?Retrieved November 12, 2017, fromhttp://healthyeating.sfgate.com/happens-deplete-electrolytes-body-11963.htmlThe Best Free Online Calculator. (n.d.). Retrieved November 12, 2017, fromhttp://calculator-1.com/

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