GCS a pre-existing tracking system. In general, this

GCS process

 

An overall stepwise process of a
GCS includes the following steps:

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·     
The Government (e.g. the Ministry of Energy)
sets the obligation on electricity suppliers for the compliance period (or
year).

·     
Eligible renewable electricity generators report
the amount of renewable electricity they generate monthly to the Energy
Regulator.

·     
The Energy Regulator issues the corresponding
number of certificates to electricity generators. Certificates are issued when
the electricity is registered in the meter. Each certificate must be unique and
separately identifiable to avoid any possibility of a double counting.

·     
Generators can sell their certificates to
obligated participants or other authorized voluntary participants, which grants
them an additional income to the wholesale electricity price.

·     
Obligated entities present their certificates to
the Energy Regulator to demonstrate their compliance with their renewable
energy requirements. In case an obligated entity has a shortfall of
certificates, it will have to pay a penalty. Certificates are withdrawn from
circulation, and cannot be used again when an obligated entity accounts it to
fulfil its obligations. Additionally, certificates may also have an expiration
date.

·     
The financial resources collected by the Energy
Regulator due to the pay of penalties can be re-distributed to suppliers who
presented certificates.

 

Usually, governments establish an
electronic tracking system to verify certificates’ claims. To do this,
governments can either contract a third-party to build a system or may decide
to use a pre-existing tracking system. In general, this type of system must be
capable of performing the following actions:

1. Certificates
issuance

2. Process verification

3. Certificates
registration and trading

4. Market
exchange

5. Certificates
banking

6. Certificates
withdrawing

 

Each certificate issued by a tracking
system typically includes the following information:

·     
Facility location

·     
Generation technology

·     
Facility owner

·     
Fuel type

·     
Nameplate capacity

·     
Year the facility began operating

·     
Month/year the MWh was generated

·     
Tracking system ID

·     
Project name  (Environmental Protection Agency,
2018)

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