Human 215 Unit 3 DB: Early Periods

Researchers in early days found it difficult to date the events that happened in the past because by then man had not invented writing. They therefore studied the artifacts and fossils that were excavated by archeologists to estimate the period when an event occurred (Clisson et al., 2002).

Archeological studies state that the ancient inhabitants of Amazon were hunters and gatherers. They were called Scythians and they were livestock farmers. There herds-men used to ride on a horse back. This has been proved by the artifacts that have been excavated in the recent which include spears and arrows. These societies shifted from one area to another in pursuit of water and pastures for their animals.

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Hathaway (2003) argues that these people did not grow crops thus they obtained food by trading their livestock products with crops produce from their neighbors. Due to their lifestyle they had the best archers who were renowned for their excellence in arching skills. These archers used to be hired by their neighbors to provide security. What we don’t know is how they were paid for their services because by then currency had not been invented.

Archeological studies have established that the Scythians wore clothing purely made from animal hides and skins. Both men and women used to wear caps that were made in various shapes. Men and particularly warriors used to put on tunics that were decorated with metallic plates of gold.

These tunics were fastened by a belt that was also used to hold the weapons of a warrior such as club and axe. The society was defended by both female and male warriors who made the defense system of these communities to stand out from the rest. Women cut their right breast because they believed it was abstracting them when they wanted to use bows and arrows (Hathaway, 2003). This act explains how the name Amazon came into being.

Clisson (2002) argues that Europe managed to control the new world because it was the pioneer of industrialization. It relied on other regions such as Africa to produce raw materials for its industries. This was done by creating colonies in this states and assigning them to governors who served the interests of Europe.

Africans were evicted from their lands which were then given out to European farmers. Africans were then forced to work in these plantations. Industrialization improved the livelihood of most Europeans and that’s what motivated Europe to expand her territory beyond the big water bodies.

According to Ricaut et al (2004), Europe was the first region to be civilized because Greece had many scholars who moved out of Europe when the region was faced with many battles. In fact, the first system of government was established in Europe. This government was very stable and that’s what enabled Britain to dominate the rest of the world.

The ancient inhabitants of Amazon were eliminated gradually. This was caused by the decrease in food because they had exhausted the hunting fields and the little that was left could hardly sustain them. Industrialization and urbanization also contributed to their extinction because the habitats of world animals were destroyed to create room for human dwelling places.

The few inhabitants of Amazon could have intermarried with early explorers of Amazon hence they were absorbed by other tribes. The frequent battles that are believed to have been staged in Amazon could have led to deaths of the original inhabitants of Amazon.

Some of the original inhabitants of Amazon could have been sold to slave traders in order to provide labor force in European farms. Once they arrived there they could have mingled with other slaves from other regions thus became extinguished (Ricaut et al., 2004).


Clisson,I. et al. (2002).”Genetic analysis of human remains from a double inhumation in a frozen kurgan in Kazakhstan” (Berelsite, early 3rd century BC).International Journal of Legal Medicine.116:304-308

Hathaway, J. (2003).A Tale of Two Factions: Myth, Memory, and Identity in Ottoman Egypt and Yemen. Albany: Sunny Press.

Ricaut, al. (2004).”Genetic analysis and Ethnic Affinities From Two Scytho-siberian skeletons”, American Journal of Physical Anthropology.123:351-360


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