Humans the organization of the text has been

Humans are diverse and dynamic social beings, to understand this diversity a mechanical approach is not always suitable; this emerge a call for qualitative inquiry i.e. looking into it through subjective lens. In the recent past, an extensive growth in qualitative field of research has been witnessed, particularly in the occupational settings. At workplaces, there are issues, concerns, and situations which are complicated hence are extremely important to address. Since these revolve around humans, an angle is needed to peep into the matter through the perspective of the concerned. Qualitative inquiries seek to explain the research observations by means of insights which are hard to produce with quantitative methods. Qualitative research is exhilarating, flexible and multi-foci in nature. Despite of the growing popularity of this field and a large number of submissions, there is a low rate of publishable acceptability, reason being the fundamental methodology to pursue a qualitative research goes missing. Incorporating the theoretical knowledge into their work is a challenge to neophytes. The beginner has little knowledge about the concepts and application of different paradigms of existing qualitative methods, hence get confused. Thus, this gap creates an urgency to help those who are interested in beginning research work by means of qualitative methods. To overcome these concerns and limitations, a chapter highlighting the basic exposure of this genus is proposed here. It will serve the purpose of amplifying the basic conception of a qualitative inquiry. Both the novice and the experienced researchers can refer to this chapter while constructing a successful premise of a qualitative inquiry. The target audience is mostly the students and scholars conducting empirical research work; the faculties and the managers who are handling the human diversity at their workplaces, whose varied needs are persistently evolving. The structure of this chapter is arranged in a simplified way. Remembering the words of (Gephart, 2004) the relationship of theory and methodology is important; the organization of the text has been composed in a way that reflects the linkage of all elements in the framework with one another. To assimilate the readers, discussion begun by mentioning about the field of study, and then moving to the need and emergence of qualitative inquiry talking about- why these types of studies are growing with the passage of time? One of the prime reasons for conducting a qualitative study is that its nature is exploratory (Mason, 2002). Meaning, not much literature is available about the subject or the inhabitants under observation, and the researcher has the scope to build a theory. This feature of novel exploration attracts the researchers to undertake such research inquiries and unfold different realities about the social processes. In an organizational setting, there are vast opportunities for an investigator to observe, explore and discover the interaction processes of social beings but it is challenging to decide upon the selection of a method to study. To explicate the concept of what qualitative inquiry is; what different paradigms and types of qualitative methods are? I have employed straightforward language and lucid illustrations (readers may use them for cross-reference), to simplify the description, and also have integrated some review questions to ensure that the readers curiosity in the concept remain intact. In general, qualitative research has a long history in several disciplines, while particularly in organization settings qualitative methods is taking a hike, as it holds the capability to bring out an in-depth understanding of a phenomenon.  The longer the development proceeded, the more a profile of what was meant by this term became clear. Knowledge of past research and theory can help a researcher to focus and choose a unit of analysis relevant to the undertaken problem. Certain studies conducted in past and present have also been cited in the chapter to strike a balance between the knowledge existed and evolving overtime in field of qualitative research.Qualitative research is an interesting field of study in natural setting that encompasses through subjectivity, flexibility and reflexivity. It is a manifold concept which is based upon qualitative methods in practice and often studies phenomena in the real world setting. Qualitative researchers stress the socially constructed nature of reality, the intimate relationship between the researcher, the subject, and the situational constraints that shape a study. Emphasis of such research is the value-laden nature of inquiry. In contrast, quantitative studies emphasize the measurement and analysis of the causal relationships between variables and processes as a value-free framework (Denzin & Lincoln, 1998). The word qualitative implies an emphasis on the qualities of entities and connotation that are not experimentally examined or quantitatively measured (if measured at all) so, individual opinion is crucial to begin and assimilate this kind of study. Textual materials such as interview transcripts, field notes, and/or visual materials such as artifacts, photographs, video recordings, that document human experiences about others and/or ones self in social action and reflexive states etc are some forms of this methodologys construal. With the advent of rapid social changes and heterogeneity in life, social researchers are increasingly confronted with new social contexts and perspectives. Workplace environment influence the behaviour and interaction aspects of the workers, which expands the scope for the scholars to conduct qualitative investigations. Hence, it becomes relevant in this context to know the fundamental elements of qualitative studies. These are so diversified to them that their traditional deductive methodologies deriving research hypotheses from theoretical models and empirically testing them are failing due to the differentiation of objects. Thus, research is increasingly inclined towards inductive strategies in form of qualitative studies. It is conducted within and across multiple disciplines for instance education, sociology, anthropology, psychology, communication, social work, organizational studies and other related fields. Qualitative research stresses on descriptions of words rather than quantification in the collection and analysis of data. As cited in (Taylor, Bogdan, & DeVault, 2016), the theoretical underpinning of social science research is dominated by two popular perspectives; the first is positivism and the second is phenomenology. The foundation of the former is credited especially to Auguste Comte (1896) and Émile Durkheim (1938) in the early 19th and the 20th centuries. While the latter, phenomenological viewpoint, has followed the lead of (Deutscher, 1973) traces its roots in philosophical and sociological backgrounds (also see Berger & Luckmann, 1967; Bruyn,1966).  A positivist orientation is labeled as scientific and assumes that reality exists out there which is observable, stable, and measurable, while, the phenomenological orientation believes that reality is socially constructed, and there are manifold ways in which a single event can be interpreted (Merriam, 2009). Both the approaches embark on dissimilar problems and seek diverse answers, hence, their methodologies differ. The positivist employs methods like questionnaires, inventories, and demographic details that produce data amenable to statistical analysis. While, the phenomenologist seek answers by using qualitative methods, such as observations, in-depth interviews, field-notes etc. The span of this field is not only limited to involve others as a subject but it also includes inter and intra convoluted relationships among people and groups.  The aim of this chapter is not to describe any method of study as the best among the rest, but to familiarize the novice with the different orientations that exist or are evolving over time along with the issues related so as to enable an understanding about the basic foundations of qualitative field. Before a researcher decide upon which method to follow, its foremost significant for him/her to know that each method is selected in relation to a research problem and not only this, but also the common problems and issues that need focused consideration from the researcher to maintain the integrity and confidentiality of the subject. 


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