Hydrocarbon pollution, commonly addressed as oil spills are the inappropriate release of liquid petroleum hydrocarbons in the ecosystem, commonly in bodies of water. The pollution can have a pernicious effect on its surroundings by acting as a barrier to several fundamental actions (Wirtz et al., 2007). An increase in health concerns, a detrimental disturbance to ecological processes and economic loss are the primary disadvantages affecting humans as a result of hydrocarbon pollution. Hydrocarbon pollution can negatively impact human health physically, psychologically and through bioaccumulation. Breathing crude oil vapours leave a deleterious impression on human physical wellbeing. Nausea, dizziness, specific forms of cancer and alterations with the nervous systems are the body’s common responses after interactions with toxic hydrocarbons (Davidson et al., 2005). It is predicted that the toxicity from hydrocarbons correlate with the effects of volatile organic compounds on the human body (Binet et al., 2002). Volatile organic compounds, regularly known as VOCs are used in oil transportation as a diluent (Aguilera et al., 2010). VOCs have been studied to cause extreme DNA corruption, diseases, birth and reproductive imperfections, endocrine and permanent neurological harm (Rodríguez-Trigo et al., 2007). Furthermore, a survey of 130 catastrophes found that mechanical calamities in the United States, similar to oil spills, were more mentally distressing than cataclysmic events (Picou et al., 2004). The demand for mental health dramatically increases at the time of an oil spill leading to increased hospital costs, social impacts through work stoppages and shorter life expectancy (Rodin et al., 1992). In addition, the consumption of toxins from hydrocarbon pollution can be fatal to humans. Bioaccumulation is the process of a smaller organism ingesting toxins, and moving up the food chain. As the predator eats its prey, the quantity of toxins increases through the food chain, eventually reaching the human digestive system. The direct digestion of toxins can act as a catalyst for any physical and mental harm proposed to humans (Aguilera et al., 2010). Overall, hydrocarbon pollution is responsible for harming human health physically and mentally while aiding to bioaccumulation and potentially harming wildlife.Similar to humans, oil spills can have a detrimental effect on the physical health of many marine species. An ecosystem is highly dependent on all the species it embodies. Every animal will react to an oil spill differently as a result of its unique set of acquired traits. Hence, if an oil spill were to affect a specific species more because of its weak immunity and small size, this will be broadcasted throughout the food chain (Davidson et al., 2005). The food chain requires smaller animals to build its foundation. Therefore, with a dramatic decrease in smaller organisms, larger creatures like humans won’t be able to extract large quantities of seafood which is a predominant portion of the human diet. The direct impact an oil spill has on the environment can play a role in narrowing the human diet. Depending on the primary location of an animal the consequences will alter. For example, animals that pass through the water/ air medium regularly are more likely to be affected (Peterson et al., 2003). However, ingestion of hydrocarbon pollutants can cause harm to DNA, interfere with the processes of the immune system, act as a barrier for basic heart functions and much more (Kazlauskiene et al., 2008). All in all, a dramatic loss of wildlife and damaged resources are a product of an oil spill and repercussion a poor economy.The economy is impacted by hydrocarbon pollution as it can reduce tourism, limits resources for fisheries and decreases marine transportation. The tourism industry can collapse as a result of damaged waterfront properties and beaches (Moldan et al., 1985). In addition, negative media coverage on the issue will leave a poor perception in public’s mind (Surís-Regueiro et al., 2007). Predominant misfortunes in tourism sub-sectors include; transportation, recreational activities, accommodations, guides and recreational fisheries. In overviews after Exxon Valdez, 59% of tourism organizations in the spill zone revealed spill-related cancellations (Loureiro et al., 2005). Other marine-based enterprises, for example, port organizations, ocean based transportation, and enterprises that utilize ocean water as production inputs are likewise in danger from oil spills. In addition, the more extensive economy may encounter unadulterated monetary misfortunes caused by decreased discretionary cash flow or market request. Business fisheries and aquaculture organizations are influenced by loss of merchandise as a result of habitat loss and mortality (Wirtz et al., 2007). Moreover, the dramatic decrease of public demand correlates with the fear of tainted goods (Garza-Gil et al., 2006). These misfortunes inflate their effects in the fishing industry influencing docks, processors, and supply organizations. The economy is a primary victim of excessive hydrocarbon pollution and suffers the negative consequences in addition, to humans and wildlife.Overall, the impact of hydrocarbon pollutants can act as a setback for several fundamental activities. The inflation of health concerns, a negative influence to biological procedures and economic misfortunes are the essential determinants influencing people because of hydrocarbon contamination (Aguilera et al., 2010). Countries must understand the critical precautions that should be took when delivering oils or other toxic materials. Increasing hydrocarbon pollutants can cause all of humanity to suffer.