I. country that had previously been renowned for

I. Brief history of general elections that exhibit ‘post-election
results instability’

election in Kenya first took place in 1992 December since independence in
accordance to the mulitipartism law that was passed in Parliament. From birth
of the mulitipartism there has been ‘post-election instability’ from the
results announced after election has taken place. As we look back we see in
1992 elections it being the first the then results were marred by allegations
of targeted ethnic (tribal) violence, pointing fingers to well-known
politicians just to mention among them the then president Daniel Arap Moi.In
the year 1997 again Daniel Arap Moi was declared president by the Kenya’s
Electoral Commission(KEC) which was said to be a disputed election but that did
not create instability or any conflict runnning with the same notion. In 2002
Kenya had a smooth transition from Daniel Arap Moi to Mwai Kibaki.In Kenya
General elections are held after every 5 years and when 2007 came it was time
to go back to the polls, and cast our votes. As highlighted earlier one of the
issues that is a resulting cause of general election is tribal affiliations as
it is later reflected in the 2007 elections as this election was labelled
2007-08 Kenyan crisis as a lot went down after announcement of results.

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as much as we would dwell in the Kenyan election history from 1963 to
2017elections that have brought tension and caused Kenyans to live in fear is
the well-known 2007/8 elections that brought Kenya to a standstill causing Kenyans
to move from their original homes due to clashes that even brought about the
then popular name IDPs (internally displaced peoples) which am not proud to say
that they are still in the society never returned to their original homes.

                According to daily
nation august (2017)


2007-2008: post-election

December 27, 2007, outgoing president Mwai Kibaki is proclaimed winner again
but his challenger Raila Odinga says the vote was rigged. Clashes in the
following weeks kill more than 1,100 people and force 600,000 from their homes,
in a country that had previously been renowned for its stability. The epicenter
of the violence is the Rift Valley, pitting members of the Kalenjin and Luo
ethnic communities, who mainly back Odinga, against their Kikuyu neighbors, to
which Kibaki belongs On February 28, 2008 an internationally-brokered
power-sharing agreement is signed under which Kibaki keeps his job and Odinga
becomes prime minister.”

article tells us of how the nation went into a sharp divide between the luos
and the kikuyus as they were fighting  each other to the point of death as they were
protecting what belonged to them assuming that the then main gamers were Raila
Odinga and Mwai Kibaki.where I live (kibera) it was so intense that the youth
were being mobilized to chase out the kikuyus from their places saying that
this was not their home and that it is Raila’s backyard so they have no reason
living there. We used to stay all night long manning our gates because even our
guard at that time was being used as Intel to give up the kikuyus in our estate
it was so sad.

kikuyus had to run for their lives before they were cought.The youths were
carrying machetes, pangas and even guns it was like a movie but when I saw this
with my own eyes I was scared .It got to a time when no other community was
allowed except from the luos that’s when we also moved out to get security even
living our belongings behind was something to worry about. When moving out of
the area you could not go through the main exit rather you would find other
means and that was through the back since we lived near the railway line we
could jump over the fence to get to the other side and get means of transport
to ferry you to the other side.

those who remained they had to endure with the harsh treatment and harassments
that went on and on. Keep in mind that the youth that were coming to cause havoc
in the estates had left their families safe and down there were they lived(slum
area) life was normal for them.At this time during the clashes there was no
police force whatsoever unlike 2017 where we had protection from the police and
this time (2017) it was not as bad as then but still could blame the police
force for the lives lost.

in 2007/8 I remember was the time that we were transitioning to the next year
which was 2008 which the violence spilled over and caused a delay. I remember I
reported school almost in march and due to the delay we were rushed through the
syllabus which for me I saw a rough year ahead. Still on the topic of destruction
there was massive demolition of schools in my home area in that when I resumed
back to school I saw my fellow mates suffer because of lack of classrooms since
they had to wait for construction of new classrooms for them to resettle back




uniform is from one of the schools near our place famously known for its
performance the child is wondering of how the buildings she was used to seeing
became ashes as she walks with the father, and the father is trying to explain
to her in a way she will understand. That building you see there, was one of
the biggest driving school in our area and the reason as to why it was burnt it
was either looting or because it belonged to a kikuyu .Those were the two
reasons as to why there was destruction of property and it still the same in
2017 lucky enough this year businessmen were taking caution of their properties
so the looting was not much.

II.similarities or
differences with the previous election compared to 2017

year’s elections which took place on the 8th of august 2017. Spearheading
this election was again president Uhuru Kenyatta and former Prime Minister
Raila Odinga Jubilee and Nasa flag bearers respectively .As Kenyans would
interprete it was a similar race in 2007 since they represented the kikuyu and
the luo and again Kenyans were afraid that history would repeat itself unlike
the history of their fathers who were running for the presidential seat some
time back …no it was the violence history. Once more Uhuru was defending his seat
for the second term and again Raila was trying his lack one more time, this
time he was so sure he was going to get the seat causing the election
commission to prepare the election a fresh and also returning the voters to the
ballot box.

the 2017 Elections, I took part in conducting the elections. And where I was
conducting the elections it was believed to be the Nasa stronghold and so there
was no way ‘baba’ could not win and so people showed up in large numbers
despite the weather and that time it was rainy. Following the procedures well
the voters voted and those that were not there on time they were locked out.
After tallying the results at the constituency level we forwarded results to
the national tally which was at bomas and from there we waited for the overall
results which was announced and when the announcement was done the electoral
body found that Uhuru was once again the president and William Ruto his deputy,
but this was not happy news to  the Nasa fraternity
as they rejected the results. Immediately it was announced hell broke loose in
kibra when the youth took their frustrations to the streets raising tension in
the neighborhood looting and lighting up  tyres on the road, blocking vehicles to pass
and if they were to pass they were charged not less than ksh100.This went until
the Nasa team presented their petition to the high court and their case was
granted hearing. This was a happy moment for the kibra residents that they
finally got justice but the real fight was not over they celebrated and made
high and good remarks concerning the chief justice David Maraga.The court
decided that a fresh election to be held after 60 days as per the constitution
and on the 26th of October we were back at it again, fresh poll

Nasa still had it in mind that they would still win but come the eve of 26th
word went round in my neighbourhood that if you were found voting on that day
you will not go home since the claims were that there were no reforms and that
we were going to vote with the same systems in place and therefore elections of
26th would not be recognized according to Raila and the Nasa
supporters so around our place people were scared to go and vote but those who
were early they had the chance to vote .still there were the brave ones who
went ahead and voted despite the threats. This was something different compared
to the previous elections going back to the ballot box was a historical event
that has never taken place in the history of Kenya.

time round the political divide among the people was so sharp that it got to
the extent that when you alighted at a certain stage you were asked your tribe
and if your tribe is their enemy you were magged.I  recall this instance where I had just alighted
and walked home that I hear teargas and commotion and when I asked I was told
there was a road block that was blocking kikuyus from entering the estates and
that they should be killed. During this happenings the young boys were taking
advantage of the situation and turning it into theft asking everyone who passed
despite your tribe that you should  give
them money and if you do not they will be forced to steal it from you .My
brother was held at gun point to surrender his belongings he was so terrified
that when he got home he was shaking to the point that he could not  narrate what happened till the next day ,he
was so disappointed because when he encountered with them he saw familiar faces
and that he could not believe what they did to him.So this time the mugging was
rampant and that many youths were involved in destruction and not as many lives
that were lost back in 2007 were lost in 2017 but lives were lost during demonstrations
and young lives for that matter.

different happening was that there were few cases of displaced people this
resulting from cases that the burning extended to people’s homes even burning
property like vehicles. These times round the police force were involved but in
most cases they were brutally handling the people.

According to the human rights watch
august (2017)


August 12, the Kenya National Commission on Human Rights reported that
the police had killed at least 24 people nationwide, including one in Kisumu
and 17 in Nairobi. The number is most likely much higher, as Kenyan media were
slow in reporting on the violence and families have been afraid to speak out.

Kenyans and non-Kenyans opinions, experiences, fears, wishes, hopes etc.below
is a sample of my questionnaire that will shed light on this.

The questionnaire below
is used for class work assignment with regard to the 2017 General Elections in
Kenya. Your response will be highly appreciated.


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