State of Maharashtra there irregularities in rainfall. In some regions there is
more rainfall and in some regions less or no rainfall. We know the importance
of water very crucial for sustaining life on earth. Sometimes drought
conditions happened. There is shortage water in natural sources of water cause
of this use of ground water increase which leads to depletion ground water
level. As we know water is essential component of life on earth for human,
animals, plants. Many farmers are depend on rain for farming, due to drought
conditions they couldn’t carry out farming practice leading to financial
crisis. If this happened in consecutively for three to four years the
conditions for farmer become difficult to survive day to day and life becomes
difficult in rural as well as urban area. Regular rain cycle is important for
life on earth and especially for farmer.
Understanding of rain and components affecting rain is important. There
are many aspects of studying rain through interdisciplinary research work from
different streams of science and technology. Present research proposal is to
carry out one of the aspect of atmosphere which is contributes to the cloud
formation and rainfall.
formation in cloud occurs by homogeneous and heterogeneous ice nucleation. Many
different types of ice-nucleating particles have been identified in clouds and
implicated in precipitation, such as soot, mineral dust, pollen, bacteria and
fungi. There is resurgence in ice nucleation research within last decade. There
are bacterial species which contains ice nucleation protein which are
responsible for formation of ice in cloud. These Ice Nucleation Proteins
exhibit physical properties required for cloud processes such as ice nucleation
and cloud condensation. To gain better understanding of their influence on
climate one should study their dynamics in terms of both biological and
physiochemical properties. Studying of ice nucleation process will help in understanding
potential impact on precipitation, water availability climate change, and crop
health and feedback cycles.
rain cycle is important for life on earth and especially for farmer. Understanding of rain and components
affecting rain is important. There are many aspects of studying rain through
interdisciplinary research work from different streams of science and
technology. Present research proposal is to carry out one of the aspect of
atmosphere which is contributes to the cloud formation and rainfall.
aim of current study is to Biophysical and Biochemical Characterization of Ice
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Nucleation is important for condensation and ice nuclei formation in clouds.
Ice formation in clouds occurs by homogeneous and heterogeneous ice nucleation.
Ice melts at 0?, water does not necessarily freeze at this temperature. Instead
ice can be super cooled several degrees below its melting point i.e. 0?. As
initiation of ice crystallization depends on the presence of ice nuclei. “The
initiation of the transition from liquid state to ice is called nucleation”.
Substances of critical size and shape allow formation of ice lattice and
because of presence of suitable catalyst in liquid state, the liquid to solid
phase transition of freezing will occur at relatively high subzero temperature
of slightly below 0?. Substances that facilitate this transition are called ice
nucleation agents. These substances may be ice crystals themselves or variety
of organic or inorganic heterogeneous ice nucleation agents (Orser, Staskawicz et al. 1985). There are
several bacterial species which are capable of catalyzing ice formation at
temperature as -2? (Gurian-Sherman and Lindow
1993). Ice Nucleation Protein which is present in mostly gram negative
like Pseudomonas syringae , Erwinia herbicola , Pseudomonas Viridiflava
and Xanthomonas campestris . The P.
syringae ice nucleation protein is mostly studied because of its ubiquity
in snow rain as it known to cause frost injury to plant cause of its ice
nucleation activity at subzero temperature. inaZ
is the gene producing ice nucleation protein in P. syringae
This Bacterial Ice
nucleation proteins are proteins which promote ice nucleation at relatively
high subzero temperatures (above -5 ?). These bacteria efficiently catalyze ice
formation at temperatures much higher than most organic and inorganic
substances. These bacteria forms colonies on plant surfaces and are sweep in to
atmosphere with the help of wind and presence of ice nucleation protein (INP)
favors formation of ice nuclei there by forming ice crystal on to which water
molecule clumps and making them bigger. These formed ice crystals turns in to
rain or snow and fall to ground. As
Nuclei are important in nice formation and snow and most rain begins with
formation of ice in cloud and recent discoveries show that these bacteria are
more efficient at forming these nuclei than inert particle, due to their larger
size and surface area.
So many commercial application
benefits from ice nucleation research, which includes production of artificial
snow, preservation of water containing food products, and potential
modification of weather. (Coluzza, Creamean et