In have structures with very high resolution so

In order to
study and develop different new materials, optical microscope is needed to
somehow to see what is happening in the microscopic scale. However, in order to
examine structures inside cells, electrons should be used instead of photons
and one of the latest additions to materials engineering practice is the scanning
electron microscope (SEM).

The SEM is a
powerful microscope that uses electrons instead of light to view objects in
great detail. The shorter wavelength of electrons permits useful magnifications
of up to about 1000x versus only about 2000x for light microscopy. The SEM also
provides much greater depth of field than light microscopes allowing complex
three dimensional materials to remain sharp and in focus. This gives the
material being examined life-like appearance and reveals details that would not
be seen by light microscopy. Scientists can magnify objects up to about a
hundred thousand times and take high quality digital photographs of everything
they see. Furthermore, the ESM can be coupled with EDS system to identify and
evaluate the chemical composition and the crystal structure of samples. With
SEM, scientists can determine the structure of viruses, i.e. protein complexes
with very high resolution in their laboratories. It is very important for
scientists to have structures with very high resolution so they can explain the
mechanisms of infection for viruses or of the actions of protein complexes
involved in important biological processes inside the cell.

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In material
science, SEM is an important technique to characterize surface features of
materials, examine contaminants to understand their origins and the effects
they have on engineering materials, examine the microstructures of metals and
alloys to help determine how they will perform in service or what service
conditions have done to these materials. SEM can also be used to examine
coatings and surface films to identify their chemical composition, thickness
and the nature of their bond with the parent material. These are just a tiny of
the many types of sample and materials that can be examined with SEM.

 To summarize, a
scanning electron microscope is one of the best ways to look at objects very
closely and an excellent way to test the composition and the quality of a
material.  The most frequent spectroscopic technique used by
organic and inorganic chemists is IR spectroscopy or Infrared spectroscopy. It
deals with the absorption of radiation in the infrared region of the
electromagnetic spectrum. IR spectrum gives sufficient information about the
structure that it is helpful in the identification of functional of a
particular compound and it can also be used as analytical tool to access the
purity of a compound. The absorption of the infrared radiation by a molecule
causes changes in their vibrational and rotational energy levels. IR
spectroscopy provides spectrum with a large number of absorption and hence
provides plenty of information about the structure of a particular compound.
There are different bands present in the IR spectra which correspond to various
functional groups and bonds which are present in that particular molecule.

Infrared spectroscopy goes beyond for the use, not
only for organic chemist but also for many other fields. Infrared spectroscopy
is a simple and reliable technique which widely is used in both organic and
inorganic chemistry. It is also used in quality control analysis, in industrial
scientific and medical applications. For example, FTIR technique is one way we
can verify the authenticity for wide range of building materials. When infrared
radiation from a laser beam hits a material, the molecules of the material
begin to move and vibrate in a very characteristic way that can be used to
identify them, this is the basis of technology based of FTIR spectroscopy. We
can think of the information we get from FTIR spectroscopy as a molecular
fingerprint. The fingerprint we get as outputs from FTIR experiments are called
spectra and we can use these spectra to identify unknown materials.


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