In life. Hence, for a successful dairy farming

In India, dairy animals mainly thrive on dry
fodders, supplemented with inadequate quantity of green fodder and concentrate;
mineral mixture supplementation is almost negligible. Under such feeding
regime, it has been found that a large number of dairy cattle and buffaloes
suffer from reproductive disorders, which are primarily due to nutritional
deficiencies.

To achieve good economic return, cow should deliver a
calf per year or calving interval should be 12-month to provide maximum profit
to dairy farmers by increasing the number of lactation per cow thereby increasing
total milk yield per cow. For a commercial
dairy farm, reproduction is the most important production parameter for
achieving profitability. The
parturition of a cows lead to initiation of productive life which is the main
event of reproduction. After that the cow needs regular cycles for conception
and calving to begin consequent lactation which is the key component of her
productive life.  Hence, for a successful dairy farming reproductive
performance of the dairy animals play a very crucial role. Therefore, for
optimal production and profit in the farm; the fertility problems that
ultimately leads to reproduction failure needs to be diagnosed as early as
possible. Usually nutritional deficiencies primarily micro-nutrients
i.e. minerals, vitamins and
energy are responsible for the
low reproductive efficiency i.e. delayed onset of oestrus, repeat breeding and/or infertility.
Subclinical or marginal deficiencies may be more responsible than acute
deficiency in livestock. Impaired
reproduction performance results in a long service period and increased inter-calving period thereby causing low milk and calf production and reduces the productive
life of animals, causing great economic loss to the dairy farmers, which is
often unrealized.

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In
animals, many reproductive processes including ovulation, fertilization and
parturition is being influenced by some PUFA (Abayasekara and Wathes, 1999). The positive effect
of dietary fat on reproduction efficiency in dairy cows could be due to effects
of certain dietary fatty acids on the pituitary, ovaries and uterus, rather
than via improved energy status (Lucy et al., 1992; Staples et al., 1998). It
has been proposed that reducing attenuating the prostaglandin secretion by
uterus might be a potential mechanism by which some fatty acid improves reproductive
efficiency in dairy cattle (Mattos
et al., 2000; Mattos et al., 2004). Feeding protected palm oil FA
through Ca salts improved pregnancy of dairy cows (Schneider et al., 1988) as it prevent unsaturated
fatty acid to get bio-hydrogenated in rumen and made available as such form.

As linseed
contains high levels of a-linolenic acid (omega-3 fatty acid) ranging between 52- 63% and about 16%
of a- linoleic acid
(omega-6 fatty acid), which are considered as healthy fatty acids (FA). These
omega fatty acids have also been shown to influence the reproduction efficiency
of dairy animals. There is also evidence that a- linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3) can be elongated
and de-saturated by mammalian enzyme systems to produce small amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5n-3)
and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6n-3) (Griinari et al 2000). The EPA may aid
in the suppression of synthesis of PGF2? by the uterus through opposing the key
enzyme, prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase (PGHS), required for the
conversion of arachidonic acid to PGF2?. Although DHA is not a substrate, but it
is a strong inhibitor of PGHS activity. If EPA and DHA intake increases, it can
reduce the conversion of arachidonic acid to PGF2?, thus increasing the probability
of preserving the life of the newly formed embryo. If these fatty acids are fed in protected form may have
improved reproduction efficiency in cows and buffaloes.

Considering high level of a- linoleic and linolenic acids in linseed and its
availability in some parts of India,  rumen
protected linseed and soybean oil seed based strategic feed
supplement would
be formulated with most of the crucial trace
elements in the form of organic chelates and coated vitamins and feeding trial was conducted on crossbred cows to see
its effect on reproduction efficiency, so that problems of infertility could be
cured in an economical and effective manner under field conditions.
 The results of the
study are presented in this manuscript.

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