INTELLECTUAL restricted to be reused without consent of

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY

Intellectual property is an invisible
property created by human brain which is assigned certain rights. Examples of
intellectual properties include an author’s copy rights, distinctive logo designing
of a company.  Intellectual property is
not based on size or structure rather on the uniqueness of creation or idea,
potentially to be one of the most valuable to individual or business.

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Intellectual property rights will
make creator or inventor to benefit from their findings. Also, it will restrict
others from selling, using or making the invention. For example, a trademark differentiates
the goods of one manufacturer from goods of other.

This is categorized into two types.

·     
Industrial Property, categorized to have patents of
inventors, industrial designs, scientific achievements. Even trademark comes
under this.

·     
Copyright, constitutes of copyrights of
books, articles which are restricted to be reused without consent of the author.

 

PLAGIARISM

“Plagiarism
is submitting someone’s work or idea as your own, with or
without agreement of that person” 4. There are multiple forms of plagiarism.

·     
Using
quotations without clear acknowledgment.

·     
Cut
or copy and paste from Internet.

·     
Altering
just part of phrase and altering the order of thoughts and claim as own

·     
Failure
to indicate all the assistance you get from fellow students or other external
sources.

·     
Identical
parts of previous submissions.

 

ETHICAL, RESPONSIBLE USES

Some
of ethical use of intellectual properties are:

·     
Using Patented property: Your Use should enable the patent
holder to control his reputation. This includes benefitting creator
financially. You can use United States Patent & Trademark office (USPTO)
for searching patents and trademarks online. Then you can apply for the process
of getting copyrights which will allow the patent holder to present his requirements.

·     
Copyrights: copy rights are handled by
Copyright office of Library of Congress. The site for copyrights help you find
for copyrights or register for copyrights. One should be responsible in
following the process to acquire copy rights ethically.

·     
Licenses of code source: GitHub is a big repository to
include most open source or restricted framework projects. This constitutes of multiple
licensing options to use open source. For example, MIT License is a permissive
license to limited time. GitHub also provides an online source to choose the
license while developing and using the source code.

 

UNETHICAL, RESPONSIBLE
USES

Some
of unethical use of intellectual properties are:

·     
False in advertising: Giving false ads is illegal. The
Federal Trade commission (FTC) handles giving regulations for business to give
accurate advertising statements.

·     
Misuse of Scientific Research: Misusing the history of science
in provoking violence, war is unethical. Another big area in this is misuse of
biological research. This can be restricted by adopting code of conducts at
head of department level. This should be mandated even in private researches.

 

BEST PRACTICES

·     
Best
practice while working on a research is to have a knowledge on the intellectual
properties already claimed by someone in that specific fields. If any previous
work is found, go through that and find the uniqueness your work and claim it.

·     
Scientists
should feel responsible to patent their work, so that someone might night take
advantage of their intelligence. Also, they have to do frequent analysis of
their findings usage, to ensure positive effects of the invention or creation.

·     
Businesses
should offer trainings to employees in understanding the intellectual property
rights and also propose lot of code conducts while building patented or
trademark products. Also perform frequent auditing on usage or building of
restricted property.

·     
Tech
companies should be ethical towards the consumers data. They should take the proper
consent from the users while collecting their data. Also, they should follow
the standards in encrypting data. Better access control mechanism should be
implemented and other security guidelines.

 

References

1.     http://www.uspto.gov/

2.     http://lcWeb.loc.gov/copyright/

3.     https://choosealicense.com/

4.     https://www.ox.ac.uk/students/academic/guidance/skills/plagiarism?wssl=1

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