Introduction reaches about subjective well-being (subjective prosperity)and life

Introduction

Life satisfaction is happiness that
exists when we think about our lives as a whole. looking at the big picture. individual
feel that they are leading a meaningful life.it can help us in assessing social
problems thereby, helping us in the formation of policies to overcome such
problems. By the study of life satisfaction, we can monitor social progress.

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Life Satisfaction is a general appraisal
of sentiments and mentalities about ones life at a specific point in time
extending from negative to positive. It is one of three major indicators of
well-being: life satisfaction ,positive affect (Diener,1984).

Life satisfaction represents the ideas
that the individual reaches about subjective well-being (subjective
prosperity)and life quality in terms of facts taking parts in his/her
life(Dikmen,1995)

Life satisfaction for Sumner (1966) is
“A positive evaluation of the conditions of your life, a judgment that at
least on balance, it measures up favorably against your standards or
expectations.”

“.Diener, suh, lucas, & Smith (1999)
also included the following under life satisfaction: desire to change one’s
life; satisfaction with past; satisfaction with future; and significant other’s
views of one’s life.”

Life satisfaction is considered to be judgmental
component of subjective well-being.it can be assessed globally or by specific
domain area such as satisfaction with work, marriage, and health. It represents
how satisfied people feel with their life generally, as contrasted with
positive effect(happiness),which represents how they feel at a single point of
time

Background/Premises of
the Study

        Life
satisfaction is based on the family charecristics like family bonding, support
of the parents and flexibility of the family and this play a huge role in life
satisfaction of a adolescent. The couple who are involving children into relationships,(Mclan
& Adam) This causes dissatisfaction in life causing disturbances in life
creating anxiety and further to depression. Based on these studies the current
scenario is taken the life satisfaction and gender are the variables and to
know how couples are satisfying with their married life.

         

Statement of the
Research Problem

How the life satisfaction differs among
married men and women. If it differs which group has more life satisfaction?

Rationale of the Study

Marriage is a social system in which the
couples lives together with mutual understanding. It has a significant role in
Indian Context. Couple who has a successful marital life have higher life
satisfaction. But in the present scenario, there are different issues or
problems are existing between many of the couples. In such situation their life
satisfaction is differ from others and even gender has a role on the same. The
rationale for selecting this study is to statistically find out how life
satisfaction of married men and women differs.

Significance &
Scope of the Study

The major significance of the study in
the present scenario is the increased number of family problems and cases in
family courts. The reason for such issues is the lack of mutual understanding
between the couple. It would leads to the low level life satisfaction. Hence
such a study is important to know what is the level, of life satisfaction among
married couple and how gender plays a role in the same.  The expected result of the study will help
the professionals in the field to carry out more studies on other different
factors influencing the life satisfaction or developing proper intervention to
increase the life satisfaction among married couples.

 

Review of Literature

Theoretical Framework

Life Satisfaction refers to the persons
general happiness, freedom from tension, interest in life etc. According to
Chadha et al.,(1993) the term quality of life indicates general well-being.it
has been defined as the function of the physical, psychological, and social
well-being. Leo et al,(1990) analyzed nine life satisfaction variables
involving satisfaction with relations, 
hobbies place of residence ,satisfying life, health condition, physical
fitness and health overall satisfaction with ones life situation. It has been
found that research in the life satisfaction area has been plagued with
methodological shortcomings. Life satisfaction has typically been measured
using one or two item scales. So, Singh & Joseph (1996) decided to construct
a life satisfaction scale based on the following dimensions:

1.      Taking
pleasure in everyday activity

2.      Considering
life meaning full

3.      Holding
a positive self-image

4.      Having
a happy and optimistic outlook

5.      Feeling
success in achieving goals

Reviews of Previous
Studies

Research
by the National Centre for Family Research (1978) shows that being in a
relationships especially if it is a satisfying one, is closely linked to
general life satisfaction. children also play a part in this. A  sample of just under 2500 people took part in
the survey, and most respondents claimed to be satisfied with their
relationships, especially married couples with an adequate income .notably,
lack of adequate income was revealed as a chief cause of dissatisfaction in
life and relationships across most relationship situations.

Margarette(1972-1996) studies indicate that married persons have higher
levels of happiness that persons in other marital categories. In recent years,
there has been some debate over whether marriage still involves significant
advantages. In 1988, a study by Glenn and Weaver using U.S. national survey
data, indicated that there had been a steady decline in the positive
relationship between marriage and reported happiness from 1972 through 1986:
married females were reporting lower levels of happiness and never-married
males were reporting higher levels of happiness. More recent data presented in
this thesis indicate that the trends in happiness observed by Glenn and Weaver
(1988) have not continued. New data from 1987 through 1996 show an increase in
the happiness of both married males and females, and a slight decrease in the
happiness of never-married males. Data also indicate that neither life
satisfaction, or socioeconomic factors, or cohabitation can explain the
relative increase in the happiness of the never-married, compared to the
married, observed by Glenn and Weaver (1988) from 1972 through 1986. Contrary
to Glenn and Weaver (1988), evidence presented in this thesis suggests that
marriage continues to be an important institution: married persons continue to
have significantly higher levels of happiness than persons in other marital
categories. Further, marriage provides persons with benefits that cannot be
obtained from other living arrangements such as cohabitation.

Mastekaasa, (1994)This investigation
examined whether the life satisfaction advantage of married over unmarried
persons decreased over the last three decades, and whether the changes in the
contextual gender specialization explained this trend. The author used
representative data from the World Values Survey–European Values Study
(WVS–EVS)-integrated data set for 87 countries (N = 292,525) covering a period
of 29 years. Results showed that the life satisfaction advantage of being
married decreased among men but not among  women.

Kouros and Cummings (2011) collected
information from 296 America based couples on marital satisfaction, marital
conflict and depressive symptoms annually reported for three years. Results
suggested that for husbands, transactional relations between marital
satisfaction and depressive symptoms identified: high levels of depressive
symptoms predicted subsequent decreases in marital satisfaction and decreased
marital satisfaction predicted subsequent elevations in depressive symptoms
over time. For wives, high levels of marital conflict predicted subsequent
elevations in depressive symptoms over time. Cross-partner results indicated
that husbands’ depressive symptoms were also related to subsequent declines in
wives’ marital satisfaction

Quddus (1992)
this study about the adjustment of couples who live apart for occupational and
other reasons it is reported that the number of years of schooling is not
significantly related to the adjustment of couples in the absence of their
partners.

Conceptual Framework

The proposed study is based on the concepts life
satisfaction of married couples and the concept defined based on the Life
Satisfaction Scale (Singh & Joseph, 1996). The researcher take gender as
the independent variable for the study. The following diagram represents the
Conceptual Framework of the proposed study.

Research Questions

Is there any significant difference in
life satisfaction between married men and married women?

Aim

To study the
life satisfaction between married men and married women.

Specific Objectives

1.     
To study
the socio demographic profiles of the  respondents

2.     
To study
the differences in life satisfaction among married men and women

Hypothesis

There is
significant differences in life satisfaction among married men and women

Methodology

Research Design

Non-experimental
Cross sectional survey research design will be used in present study. It is a
type of research design that lacks manipulation of the independent variables by
the researcher. Cross sectional survey research design it collects the data
from population at specific point of time.

Variables

Independent
variable: Gender

Dependent
variable: Life satisfaction

Operational Definition

Life
satisfaction.

Life satisfaction
refers to a person’s general happiness, freedom from tension, interest in life etc.Singh&Joseph(1996).

Gender.
The fact of being male or female, especially when considered with reference to
social and cultural differences in biology (Hornby 9th edition) For this study the
researcher consider male and female as two major category based on gender.

Sample                                                                                                                                  

The sample for this study included
married men and women who are in the category of The young adulthood(20-40) &
middle adulthood (40-60)  (E.Papalia, 1978) will
be  taken as a sample for this
current study.. The sample size will be 120(60 married men &60 married
women).

Sampling
method will be Non-probability sampling Convenience sampling method & Snow
ball sampling method. Convenience sampling method also known as availability
sampling. It is a specific type of non-probobility sampling method. data
collection from population who are conveniently available to participate in
study.

                        Inclusion criteria.

1.     
Married men and women who are Indian citizen
who are currently living in India

2.     
Age group of sample will be ( Young
Adulthood(20-40),&Middle adulthood(40-60)                             

3.     
Participants are able to read and
understand English

                        Exclusive criteria.

1.     
Participants divorced separation from
the family

2.     
Participants who are mentally and
physically challenged

Tools for Data Collection

Socio
Demographic Sheet. Name, Contact details, Gender, Current
Location, Age, Qualification, Place of living, marital status, Occupation

Life
satisfaction scale (Singh & Joseph, 1996).
Life satisfaction scale by Singh &Joseph (1996) was used to measure the
life satisfaction of the respondents .The scale consists of 35 items based on
five dimensions of life satisfaction: taking pleasure in everyday activities, considering
life meaning ,holding a positive self-image, having a happy and optimistic
outlook and feeling success in assuming roles. the items are The items are to
be rated on five point scale: Always, Often, Sometimes, Seldom and Never which
are scored as 5,4,3,2,1 respectively.

Reliability:
The test-retest reliability computed after a lapse of 8 weeks turned out to be
0.91

Validity:
To determine validity of the Life satisfaction Scale coefficients  of 
correlation between the present scale and Life Satisfaction Scale of
Alam and Singh (1971)was computed. The coefficient of correlation was found to
be 0.83.The scale also possesses face and content validity since each item was
judged by experts.

Procedure for data
collection

The selected samples will be selected using
convenience and snow ball sampling method. The researcher identified the
samples with the help of pre-existing contacts also. Once the samples were
identified the consent form for participating in the research study will be
distributed and their socio demographic details will take through socio demographic
profile sheet. And all details will be explained to the participant and gave
the assurance that their data used only for academic purpose and kept
confidentially. Finally the researcher will be administered the scale for
getting required data on selected samples.

Procedure for Data
Analysis.

The researcher will process the obtained data
through the process like editing, tabulating, coding, scoring and analyzing
through statistical software SPSS. The first objective – nature of the sample
selected for the research will be studied through the descriptive statistics
and normal distribution of the data will be analyzed with skewness and kurtosis
statistical test. The statistical test will be used for the hypothesis analysis
are as follows-

Independent
sample T test will be used to measure life satisfaction among married male and
female.

Ethical Consideration

Informed
consent was taken from each of the sample. The research results and data was
only used for academic/research purposes. Confidentiality and privacy of
the  participants involved in the study
of research was preserved and maintained.

References

Buetell, N. (2006). Life satisfaction,a
Sloan Work and Family Encyclopaedia entry.

 

Diener,Emmons,Larsen and
Griffin(1985)The satisfaction with Life Scale.The journal of personality
Assessment,71-72.

Papalia,D.E.,Gething,L.,&Gething,D.H
(1989).Life Span Development.Australia:

McGraw-Hill.

Ram Ahuja (2001). Reasearch
Methods.Reasearch Design.

UKEssays (2015).Definition of Life
Satisfaction Psychology Essay. on 16th April 2017

 

Mastekaasa, A. (1994).Life Satisfaction,
An International Comparison Journal of Comparitive Family studies, 25(2),
183-205.

Kouros, C.D., & Cummings, E.M.(2011).Transactional
relations between marital functioning and depressive symptoms. American  Journal of 
Orthopsychiatry (1); 128-138.

Singh&Joseph , (1996).Life
Satisfaction Scale.National Psychological Corporation.

Adams, M.(1972-1996).Marital Status and
Happiness

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