Literature are harmful to the human society. Have

Literature
Review

            “Whistleblowing is
characterized as a dissenting act of public accusation against an organization
which necessitates being disloyal to that organization.”

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“Whistle-blowing
definitions Reference Description

 Richard – 1980 going public with information
about the safety of a product.

 Bok – 1980 sounding an alarm from within the
organization in which they work,
aiming to spot light neglect or abuses that threaten the public interest.

Chalk and Hippel 1979 an
action comes true when an employee,
independently makes known concerns to individuals outside the organization, without support or authority from
his superiors.

            Whistleblowing also occurs when

1.) an individual performs an action or series of actions
intended to make information public;

2.) he information is made a matter of public record;

3.)
the information is about possible or actual non-trivial wrongdoing in an
organization

4.)
the individuals who performs the action is a member or former member of the
organization

Source: (Johnson. In Elliston et al., 1985, p.
15)

 

Whistle
blowers are responsible for the public knowing the information of the actions
that the organization have been taking.
This information that the whistleblower provides could be very helpful to the
public if the actions that are taken are harmful to the human society. Have whistleblowers gained a name of
a hero or villain though? Whistleblowers have can have many motives and they
aren’t the most selfless
motive either.
Whistleblowers that work for multi-million dollar companies tend to have large
payouts when they blow the whistle.
Also their motives can just simply be payback for past actions. On the other hand those that are
considered heroes are motivated by loyalty.
Because there are such consequences to being a whistleblower, “85%
of workers see wrong-doing at their places of employment, yet fail to report it.” Benyamin, C.
(2017, June 09) Being a hero or
villain is merely just your opinion.
The act of whistleblowing can be seen as a hero because they have presented
immoral or illegitimate information to the public.
They are considered villains when they blow the whistle for self-gain rather
than the morally correct decision. there
are two types of decisions which are made and taken by the whistle blowers
during controversies.
First, they have to determine
the wrongdoing prevalent in the organization.
Second,
how to deal with the wrong doing present in the organization. One important prerequisite is to
make ethical decisions and for this the whistle blower needs to have the
ability to recognize and evaluate the ethical dilemma correctly. Hence it is necessary to understand
the propensity of whistle blowing towards the moral reasoning (Taylor and
Curtis,
2010).

Researchers
like Miceli & Near,
1985; Miethe& Rothschild,
1994 have attempted to recognize the characteristics of a whistle blower in the
organization.
Like, Brabeck (1984)
studiedthe relationship between the moral reasoning of an employee and
whistle-blowing and his this study found that the employees who have higher
degree of moral reasoning are the once who are considered more likely to blow
the whistle.
Miceli et al.,
(2001) presented that when the employees do not feel morally compelled they do
not report the wrongdoing prevailing in the organization. Rhodes and Strain (2004) studied
whistle-blowing in academics.
Keenan (2002),
Near et al.,
(2004) explained the factors which effect the employees to blow whistle
internally or externally in the organization.

          Internal whistleblowing occurs when someone
uses their authority or rank to violate the rules within an organization, so one’s
superiors are bypassed,
because they are either involved in the wrongdoing themselves or are scared to
act on the situation.
Because the whistleblowing stayed within the organization, it is internal. External whistleblowing is when you
take the problem from the organization and present it to the press, an agency, or news station.

An
example would be Daniel Ellsberg a well-known whistleblower who had leaked
papers from the Pentagon that would have ended the Vietnam war and overturn
Nixon as president.
These papers showed the America people that there was corruption in the
government and they and all been deceived about the War. If he did not present these papers, the war would have continued on and
more people would have been sent off to War and to die.

            The example about shows us that it
can be really beneficial to others if action is taken and the whistle is blown. With whistleblowing we can minimize
corruption in the world.
Racism whistleblowing is important because it allows us to maintain it and show
people their rights.
Sexual harassment will be reduced.  The health and safety of employees will
enhanced.

Whistleblowing
History

            In 2002, the enactment of Sarbanes-Oxley
Corporate Reform Act, which
gave protection to internal and external whistleblowing.

The
provisions of Sarbanes-Oxley

Make it illegal to “discharge, demote, suspend, threaten, harass or in any manner
discriminate against”
whistleblowers
Establish criminal penalties of
up to 10 years for executives who retaliate against whistleblowers
Require board audit committees
to establish procedures for hearing whistleblower complaints
Allow the secretary of labor to
order a company to rehire a terminated employee with no court hearing
Give a whistleblower the right
to a jury trial,
bypassing months or years of administrative hearing

“The
Act offers reassurance to the public that corporations do not have a free card
for unethical behavior.” 
(Anand,
S. 2007).

            Whistleblowing laws before SOX, employers “because
of their relative superior managerial powers are often not deterred by their
adverse employment actions.” (Yeoh, P. 2015) Workers without contracts and indefinite duration could
have been fired for any reason good or bad. The employer did not have to explain themselves or their
actions to the employee. “The states whistleblower protection
is nevertheless diverse,
as common laws in each state treat the public policy exception differ-entry. These divergences vary depending on
the types of illegal activities to be reported, the types of whistleblowers to be protected and the types
of usable evidence.
Here, some offer protection only when
such reports are made to appropriate government bodies whereas others offer
protection only when reporting internally” (Yeoh, P. 2015)

                When
the Sarbanes-Oxley Act was put into place in 2002 by President Bush, it
provided protection for corporate whistleblowers. This act protects employees
of publicly traded companies. This makes employees and their employers are more
aware that the risk are higher and the consequences are more severe. Because
the actions are so important, there is a certain amount of time that the wrong
doing must be reported for the Sarbanes-Oxley to be affective. You are the
whistleblower have 180 day from the day of the wrongdoing to OSHA.