Culture refers to beliefs, values, and code of behavior upheld by a community that distinguishes that community from other communities. Organizational culture therefore refers to values, norms, principles, assumptions and patterns of behavior that distinguish one organization from another one.
Understanding different cultures and their influence on business performance is very important. Management on the other hand refers to the process of managing people in order to accomplish set goals and objectives using available resources in an efficient and effective manner. Management tasks involve planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling (Connolly, 2008). This essay explains the effects of organizational culture on managerial decisions and how culture can influence managers to make decisions.
The effect that organizational culture has on managerial decisions depends on whether the organization has a strong or a weak culture. Organizational culture determines the decision making process as well as decision making speed. Some cultures permit all employees to participate in the decision making process.
Other cultures only allow the management to make decisions. Those organizations that allow all employees to participate in decision making process, might take long to make decisions due to the lengthy process. However, such decisions are likely to be effective since they incorporate different ideas from different people (Connolly, 2008).
Organizational culture determines the kind of employees that an organization will hire. The culture that exists determines who should be hired by the organization. Clear guidelines are written down to specify qualifications required for a specific job. Good criteria exist for recruitment, selection, promotion, lying off as well as retirement. In this case, the management has to comply with the criteria (Robbins, 2003).
Organizational culture determines the level of formalization. Formalization in this case means the extent to which written rules and procedures are followed in an organization. Organizational cultures with high degree of formalization make it easy for management to regulate. This is because there is a clear outline of how one is expected to carry himself/herself out, and so the employees strictly follow rules (Robbins, 2003).
Organizational culture determines the level of empowerment in an organization. Some cultures allow the low level employees to make decisions on their own whenever necessary as long as the decisions are in line with the set goals and objectives of the organization. This means that, the top management is not the only authority allowed to make decisions but also other lower level employees. However, these decisions have to be approved by the top management (Robbins, 2003).
Organizational culture may hinder change. A culture that is too rigid may hinder effective implementation of change. This is because employees may not be willing to incorporate new changes due to fears of, for instance, loosing their jobs. This means that the efforts of the top management to implement changes might not be effective (Robbins, 2003).
Organizational culture determines the kind of relationship that exists within an organization. When there is good relationship between low level employees and top management or between employees in different departments, then the working place is freed of unnecessary tension creating a good and productive working place in the organization.
As a result, the top management decisions will always consider the low level employees and consequently there will be motivation and loyalty of all employees in the organization. This means that everyone will work hard towards the achievement of organizational goals and objectives.
Organizational culture may give a manager more room for authoritative style of leadership. A culture that only allows the top management to make decisions will give room for authoritative leadership. This is because it is only the managers who make decisions and so the opinion of other low level employees may not be taken into consideration. The low level employees will have to obey the orders from top management without questioning. This may not be favorable at all.
Organizational culture can also influence managers to be role models. In cultures where leaders walk their talk, managers always strive to maintain good conducts. They will reinforce the desired values by the way they act or behave (National Defense University, n.d.).
Organizational culture can empower the manager to reward those who excel and punish those who disobey the set rules and regulations of an organization. When a certain culture gives criteria on the behaviors that should be awarded as well as behaviors that should be punished, it becomes an empowerment for the manager to take the right action in accordance with the criteria (National Defense University, n.d.).
Organizational culture has a big influence on managerial decisions as the culture determines the success of decisions made and their effectiveness. It is therefore important for managers who make everyday decision to understand the culture of an organization and see if the culture helps the organization to achieve its goal. The management should also create a better working environment to enable a good culture.
Connolly, C. (2008). Organizational Culture. Nei Associates. Retrieved on 4th October, 2011 from: http://www.neiassociates.org/connolly.pdf
National Defense University. (n.d.). Strategic leadership and decision making: organizational culture. Air University. Retrieved on 4th October, 2011 from: http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/ndu/strat-ldr-dm/pt4ch16.html#top
Robbins, S. (2003). Organizational behavior: organizational culture. Slide Share. Retrieved on 4th October, 2011 from: http://www.slideshare.net/itsvineeth209/ch18-organizational-culture
Management is fundamental human resource in an organization which indulges in giving the directions to the organizations operations. Management is classified into three main classes for effective administration and efficient production in the company. The classes are top level management, middle level management and first level management also known as first line management.
The most interesting and appropriate level of entry in Hershey Foods is as an operations supervisor which is a first line level management. This will give me an opportunity for progressive lineage motion along the managerial ladder to the top level management over time.
As an operation manager I will have the first touch with the workers involved in operations of the company and therefore the daily operations of the company is one of the key responsibilities. The maintenance of discipline among the operations employees will be my task at this level in conjunction with the middle level management.
The company’s objectives and goals are spearheaded by operations manager though they are not actively involved in setting the goals. Motivation of the operation workers is also another key responsibility of operations supervisor. This is the first line management because it is the lowest level of management where the employees are linked with the company’s management.
Having worked in the company as an operation supervisor for considerable duration and gained enough skills on the company’s operations, I can then successfully join the middle level management as an operation manager.
At this level I will be able to take charge of all the companies operations and thus have all the operations supervisors report to me on the activities of the operations. The goals and the objectives of the operations department is also a key responsibility. I will also act as a link between the first line management to the top level management.
I will also be involved in the decision making for the company since I will be equipped with the information of the company’s daily operations. This position qualifies to be the middle level management since the scope of management is greater and at the same time there is direct communication to the top level and first line management.
Middle level management will prepare me for the executive position of the vice president, Chief Operating Officer which is at the apex of management. I will be able to participate in making decisions affecting the all company in conjunction with other top level management team members. The task of employment and promotions particularly senior managers will be yet another crucial role.
The overall performance of the company will be an ultimate responsibility since the roles are clearly visible at this level. The direction of the company is dictated by the team although we will not interact directly with the day to day activities of the company.
At this level I can then enjoy the highest salary and live in a nice environment. It is also possible that I can move from one company to another and still maintain the same echelon of management or even start a new company as a chief executive officer.
In conclusion the managerial ladder is a systematic organisational structure through which an individual climbs in many occasions so as to reach the highest level of management.
Irrespective of the level of management, there are common roles which apply to all managers, which include; decisional functions where decisions involving the resources of the company are made, informational roles which is obtaining and communicating information appropriately and finally management skills which greatly sit on the individual’s personal character.