Migration, Immigration, and Emigration, and their Effects on Religion, Women, and Minorities in Egypt


People relocate to new residences with the intent of attaining diverse goals. Evidently, such persons may relocate within their countries or cross their nation’s boundaries. Diverse repercussions often exemplify the livelihoods of citizenry who relocate to a novel environment as illustrated in the paper. It is imperative to acknowledge that Immigration connotes people’s relocation to diverse nations with the intent of enhancing their livelihoods. Interestingly, immigrants may move willingly or relocate since the situation in their countries may be dire.

Notably, professional immigrants engage in work processes after their willful relocation. Additionally, immigrants who reposition regularly often become refugees in the novel nations. Emigration connotes abandoning one’s own nation of birth thus moving to another country. This rearrangement assumes a permanent dimension thus depriving the origin nations, the necessary expertise that can spur progress.

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Migration connotes the movement of a person from their entity of origin or part of a nation to another with the intent of engaging in diverse activities. Concurrently, migration focuses on temporary change of residence. It is remarkable that these movements culminate in diverse benefits and drawbacks to a nation or her citizens. This paper investigates the effects of these movements on religion, women, and minority entities in Egypt

Overview of Migration, Immigration, and Emigration in Egypt

Apparently, shifts in locations by individuals in Egypt have been evident for decades. It emerges that emigration rates continue to escalate as evident in the last four decades. Initially, legal restrictions controlled rates of emigration to curb magnanimous numbers of professionals who preferred Western countries.

Egypt’s adoption of her 1971 constitution, spiraling fuel prices, and augmenting requirements for the migrant workforce elicited monumental emigration from Egypt (Sika, 2010). It is notable that most emigrants still head to Western countries. Sources establish that migration to Europe is increasing. However, this process culminates in an unbalanced nature of migrants.

It is evident that Egypt hosts massive numbers of migrant workforce. Similarly, the country amasses huge proportions of immigrant registered as displaced and asylum seekers from diverse countries. Interestingly, the refugees house Palestinians uprooted from their habitats during the 1948 hostilities (Sika, 2010). Further, refugees dominating Egypt emanate from “Somalia, Ethiopia, Sudan, and Eritrea” (UNFPA, 2011).

It is also outstanding to mention that emigration to Europe is attributable to gender equity and elevated skill levels arising from professionals.

However, relocation to Arab countries encompassed massive proportions of males with minimal training and diminished skill levels thus seeking employment (Sika, 2010). Likewise, the proliferating immigrants hardly obtain opportunities to add value to Egypt’s progress because of their dire situation. Gender equilibrium among immigrants appears inclined on women, youngsters, and the old.

This emanates from the notion that, men and young boys participate in the hostile tendencies. The diverse models of movements generate concerns as regards to religion, women, and minorities in Egypt (UNFPA, 2011). Certain movements appear to escalate because of conflicts, which result from doctrine aggressions. It is evident that movements into and outside Egypt present diverse challenges to women together with minority groups (Sika, 2010).

Impact of Religion in Egypt

Evidently, Egyptians have historically followed Islamic decrees at expansive lengths. This has led to the sustainable peace in Egypt. Migration occurred due to the search for employment in other countries. This has persisted over decades leading to the social revolt. This calls for initiation of employment opportunities (Christian Today, 2011). The revolt facilitated President’s Mubarak defeat and subsequent ousting from power.

Prior to Mubarak’s defeat, slight religious conflicts continued silently. The vacuum led to open religious inconsistencies, which competed to fill the emptiness. Muslim Brotherhood’s together with Salifists battle for supremacy thus the need to gain power. This necessitated attacks on the Christian minority groups (Mnnonline, 2011). Muslims engage Christians in conflicts because they appear unhappy with Christian followers. It emerges that religion contribute to present conflicts in Egypt thus necessitating migration.

Egypt Ethic Make up and Christian Minorities

Magnanimous proportions of Egypt’s population include Eastern Hamatic tribal groups. They comprise of native Egyptians, Berbers together with Bedouins (MacDonald, Marshall Cavendish Corporation & Paren et al., 2000). Apparently, this group contains tribes emanating from interactions of native Egyptians with diverse groups from Africa and other regions.

Remaining population component contains minorities including Greeks, Europeans, and Nubians (MacDonald et al., 2000). The Nubians appear to have integrated within the Egyptian Arabs eventually adopting their culture. Nevertheless, certain minor groups within the Nubians still practice their indigenous Nubian cultures.

Arabs entering marriages with other visitors declined immensely tensioning cultural interaction. The diverse religious groups also display certain differences. Muslims form the utmost component of Egypt population with Christians only accounting for at least ten percent of inclusive population. All Muslims hold to the Sunni decrees thus enabling their continued loyalty to Islam (MacDonald et al., 2000). Migration has contributed to expansive interaction thus augmenting the minority populations.

Muslims expansively engage Christian minorities in confrontations, which eventually necessitate migration. Muslim mobs execute attacks on the minority Christians by torching churches. It appears the violence advanced by Muslims escalated after social defeat of President Mubarak (Mnnonline, 2011). Muslims declared hostility on the Christians who converted their faith diverting from Islam. Reports show magnanimous Muslim population will continue their interest to terminate the lives of most Christians.

This religious hostility appears to emanate from the Muslim Brotherhood’s notion of seeking power under the novel Egypt (Christian Today, 2011). Similarly, Salafists religious group also battles to gain control of Egypt. The warring factions present potentially inconceivable pressure on minority Christians. This has necessitated huge flows of Christians from Egypt to seek protection (Mnnonline, 2011).

Societal Issues

Migration affects women and young girls confronted with the challenges, which emanate from such occurrences. Monumental numbers of women regularly involved in these movements exude reproduction abilities (UNFPA, 2011). They confront challenges such as raising their youngsters in an unfamiliar environment, which avails little amenities necessary for reproduction.

Most women emigrants also face hardship while working, in various sectors to attain income. The less skilled of them also appear to work under dehumanizing environment, which affects them psychologically. Further, trafficking of women and young girls also affects them negatively (UNFPA, 2011). They regularly end up suffering because of the activities their hosts engage them into executing.

In most instances, women suffer diverse abuses including physical, sexual, and emotional. Traffickers force women into drugs, arranged transgressions, prostitution, tourism marriages, child sex, and unpaid wages (UNFPA, 2011).

It is worth commenting that immigrant young women also forfeit schooling due to their refugee status. Furthermore, many women fail to attain their dreams and potentially successful ones never realize their potential. Underage women regularly confront enormous challenges, which apparently may cease by attaining autonomy.

Immigrants into Egypt have advanced globalization in diverse ways. It is notable that the European expatriates offer diverse knowledge thus facilitating Egypt’s progress. Further, their investments within Egypt address unemployment concerns, which plague Egypt.

Diverse job openings are manifest, thus allowing skilled and knowledgeable Egyptians to attain employment thus enhancing livelihoods. Cultural interactions observed amid Arabs and exotic groups have apparently led to the establishment of generations (MacDonald et al., 2000). Intermarriages between Egyptians and diverse groups facilitate unity among races.

It is outstanding to comment that immigration has elevated the Christianity following in Egypt. Though still the marginal, Christianity appears to escalate as magnanimous populations switch from Islam.

In deed, this progress angers Muslim Brotherhood since they have noted the pace at which Christian religion spreads in Egypt. Similarly, migration integrates fiscal marketplaces thus massive population attains satisfaction through accessing diverse items, which are exotic to their regions. Societies emerge as greater beneficiaries because of migration incidences.

Notably, migration culminates in diverse economic benefits to Egypt’s economy. These originate from the remittances made by citizens residing in other regions. Sources indicate that the funds sent home escalates Egypt’s economic stability (Sika, 2010).

It is outstanding to reiterate that professionals migrating to other countries often give rise to brain drain. This reduces the pace of Egypt’s development because of diminished expertise and human resource. Government spending on refugees also appears to increase (Sika, 2010). This results from the augmenting population of immigrants needing government attention.


In summary, Egypt has experiences assorted consequences of migration. Emigration has escalated the remittances gained from citizens residing overseas. Further, emigration has culminated in augmented suffering amid Egyptian citizens working in the Gulf nations.

Immigration has generated increased population of refugees, which necessitates government commitment with the intent of sustaining their existence.

It has also resulted to women and young girls facing exploitation by traffickers. Religion and its related inconsistencies appear to have affected the present conflicts. Minority Christians remain the most affected by warring Muslim Brotherhood seeking to fill the leadership vacuum. This was created after President Mubarak’s removal from control.


Christian Today. (2011). Bishop and Baroness Warn of Rising Violence against Christians in Egypt. Maars News. Retrieved from http://news.maars.net/blog/2011/05/21/bishop-and-baroness-warn-of-rising-violence-against-christians-in-egypt/

MacDonald, F. Marshall Cavendish Corporation. Paren, E. Shillington, K. et al (2000). Peoples of Africa, Volume 10. New York, NY: Marshall Cavendish.

Mnnonline. (2011). U. S. Religious Freedom Head Silent on Egypt. Maars News. Retrieved from http://news.maars.net/blog/2011/05/11/u-s-religious-freedom-head-silent-on-egypt/

Sika, N. (2010). Highly Skilled Migration Patterns and Development: The Case of Egypt. Retrieved from: http// www.cadmus.eui.eu/handle/1814/13454 Migration.aspx

UNFPA. (2011). Migration: Egypt. Retrieved July 14, 2011 from http://egypt.unfpa.org/english/Staticpage/022c676b-1735-4c63-8290e1a81f539a86/


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