There are four models of communication: action, interaction, transaction, and constructivist. The Action model consists of source of message, the message itself, communication channel, the receiver as well as encoder and decoder. The channels may carry either verbal or non-verbal message. For example, telephone and email. An interactive model of communication stresses on communication between people in a two-way mode.
Both parties in this case become a sender and receiver, but they take turns to become either a sender or a communicator. The transactional model on the other hand upholds that the people’s communication becomes simultaneous senders and receivers of the messages. It recognize that when one person is listening to another while also receiving the messages, he too sends non-verbal messages through nodding, eye contact, gestures and vocal sounds such as ‘uh’.
Constructivist model involves ability to produce a good message, both verbal and non-verbal to accomplish social goals and ability to know the meaning of the message. Some people are skilled communicators while others are not.
Self-awareness helps a person to have a clear picture of oneself. People who know that they have problems in their communication will likely be competent since they are able to correct their way of communication while communicating to others.
Attitudes are the behavioral ways of how a person responds to people and situations. How a person responds to situations depicts his behaviors or attitudes. It is supported by the values and beliefs held. Beliefs are the supposition or ideas we make about others and ourselves as well as how we anticipate things to be.
Beliefs determine the values we have. Likewise, values are the qualities that are considered worthwhile. They determine persons’ big priorities and the driving forces. The list of each quality that we hold in attitude includes kindness, courage, dramatic and friendly. The values include honesty, integrity and openness, and the beliefs are success, love and self worth.
Self-concept entails how we evaluate ourselves, the way we know our personality and how we rate the ability and skills that we have and thus, have a concept of ourselves – having self-esteem leads to positive image. The factors that influence self-concept include age, culture, appearance, and education. People in many cultures have their own way of thinking due to different ideas and expectations. However, self-esteem entails the way an individual accepts himself or how he values himself.
Self-esteem is either negative or positive since it depends on the degree to which an individual values himself. High self-esteem leads to confidence, self value, optimism and not being concerned what people think, whereas low self esteem leads to low confidence, wanting to look like others, pessimism and being concerned of what others think and say.
Therefore, the factors that influence human self-esteem include how people react towards us. If people say positive things about an individual, flatter, and admire him, he is likely to have positive self-image.
However, if they say bad things about him or avoid his company, he is likely to develop a negative self-image. Comparison with others is another factor where people compare themselves with others as a reference group and if people in that group are more successful and happier, people tend to have positive self-image, but if less successful, they develop negative image.
Social role is another factor that determines our esteem. For example, the doctors and pilots roles promote a positive image, but for the unemployed person or garbage collector, roles promote negative image. Thus, the roles we are identified with determine our personality.