Negotiation according to McCuddy (2003, p.1), is a course of action where different parties with originally different views on a specific issue move towards a common agreement on the same. The process involves some vital approaches namely talking, dialogue, giving, and taking, conferring and positioning. A negotiation needs people to relent on their initial position on the idea so that a smooth working relation can be maintained in places like workplaces so that.
Negotiation undergoes different phases and at each phase, different actions are called for to facilitate a successful negotiation. These negotiation phases include; preparation and planning phase, opening phase, testing and comprehending other party’s weaknesses phase, moving to make compromise phase, compromising phase and conclusion/union phase.
Before beginning to negotiate, first an individual must prepare and plan by setting goals, doing consultation, analyze the outcome of comprising on initial group position and ensure that the group agrees. At this phase, it is wise to mull over your group weakness and strengths, and that of the opponent. Do not leave anything to chances or underestimate the other group. By preparing and being ready, to comprise as a group will facilitate a victorious negotiation.
Secondly, when a real negotiation begins, be polite and own up liability is necessary, try to understand their position and be in command of of a discussion. At this phase, as you ask probing questions, you will understand other party’s concerning and compare with yours before thinking about comprising your position based on laid down facts.
Comprising facilitates successful negotiation, as both parties will satisfied as long as each understands to what extent has the other party shifted in their initial demands. Finally, concession phase is where an agreement is reached and at this point questions such as how much I have gotten, how much have I given much be adequately answered and must be in line with initial agreement as group.
The way questions and ideas are framed is a key determinant of the outcome of any negotiation. Group or individual understanding of the procedure, assessment of other negotiators, the plans, and ways adopted all depend on the framing.
In the field of negotiation, we have first, cognitive heuristics viewpoint framing whereby this perspective “applies the frame construct to understand the breaches of rationality that disputants routinely commit in negotiation-based settings” (Ogilvie, 1998, par. 3).
The advantage of this kind of approach it seeks to take advantage of any shift from rational way of thinking to irrational way thinking based on questions framed and asked a week point to win the case. This is a poor approach as it is not active it is actually static.
Second framing is the “Frame Categorisation Approach” and according to Ogilvie (1998, par.4), tries to comprehend negotiation deeds by first classifying frames they are exposed all the way through negotiator statements and then establishing how the utilization of specific frame categories controls the negotiation procedure and its results. This the best way of negotiation and will facilitate easy concession.
This because by allowing other negotiator to speak, you get all facts and you get to understand their objectives of arguing, understands their position and therefore you comprising on a fair ground. The only downside of this frame is that if the other negotiator is not honest, he will present inaccurate facts, and decision you make will be based on presented will not be the best one.
Additional, decision is also based on feelings and framing the other negotiators’ communication for example when you say statements such as “What you said just then, actually makes me feel better about signing off on an agreement with you”( Ogilvie 1998, par.6).
In all negotiations, human beings build up cognitive biases such as framing bias, psychology bias and heuristic bias which help them digest information in the course of negotiation. These three cognitive biases are time dependant and actually facilitates decision making as negotiators will use either of the three mentioned bias in the course of discussion hence agreement is achieved.
McCuddy, M.K. (2003).Organizational behavior, 8e schermerhorn, hunt, and Osborn.
Chicago, Chgo: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Ogilvie, S. (1998). Frames in negotiation. Retrieved on 18, 2010 from