Sickle Cell Anemia is a disorder that normally increases blood thickness hence affects the smooth flow of blood. This is caused by the destruction of red cells where the normal shape of red cell becomes a stiff sickle shape. As a result, sufficient oxygen does not reach the vital organs.
A vaso-occlusive crisis arises from hindrance of blood circulation by sickle shaped blood cells. It is characterized by sturdy pains and in some cases; it may cause permanent organ damage. This paper seeks to formulate a nursing diagnosis, as well as a plan of care that includes nursing interventions and the methods to be used to evaluate whether the interventions are successful (American Sickle Cell Anemia Association, 2010).
Nursing diagnosis is a clinical assessment of health problems experienced by a family or an individual and their response to this health problem. It helps in determination of interventions that are to be put in place so as to realize the desired outcome. This diagnosis enables the nurse to come up with a care plan for the patient (National Institute of Health, 2002).
In this case, the nursing diagnosis is probably a sickle cell crisis and the possibility of shift in self perception that is linked to the notion of being different from peers. Outlined herein, are some of the interventions with their rationale and outcomes. Firstly, Maya and the family should be encouraged and helped to alternate the intervals of resting and activity. The rationale is that this could help their bodies reduce the demand for oxygen and hence reduce their hypoxia level.
Maya should also be assisted in taking deep breath movements and mild body turning exercises. The rationale behind procedure is that it promotes chest expansion, which boosts the circulations of secretions thus reducing the risks of blood clotting (Sickle Cell Disease Association of America, n.d.). The outcome is that the patient’s family will know the precautions to be taken and the strenuous activities to be avoided for them to keep fit.
Another intervention is to encourage Maya and her family to take sufficient fluids, like eight glasses per day. The rationale is to keep the body well hydrated to prevent or reduce viscosity of blood so as to have proper circulation. Here the outcome is that the concerned people will know the amount and the exact fluids to be taken (Hockenberry & Wilson, 2007, p. 648).
Another intervention is to monitor Maya’s respiratory rate, the rationale being indicators of sufficient respiratory process. There is also need for the nurse to be around several times in a day in order to monitor the patient’s cardiac regularity. Rationale: changes of cardiac rhythm could imply the effects of hypoxia on cardiovascular.
Also the nurse should analyze reports of chest pains and occurrence of fatigue. The rationale is the possibility of severe chest syndrome development. The outcome is that the people concerned will be given specialized treatment as it may be required (Hockenberry & Wilson, 2007, p. 658). More important, there is need for counseling as an intervention. This will help patient realize that he/she is not different from other children.
Having put up the necessary interventions, the next step is to evaluate whether they are successful. This could be done by observing and recording how the patient is responding to treatment. The question in mind should be, is the patient improving or deteriorating? If the patient is improving, then the nursing diagnosis should continue until full recovery.
In conclusion, nursing diagnosis coupled with medical diagnosis is an effective treatment of patients with sickle cell anemia. However, the choice of interventions should be done carefully so as to realize the desired outcome otherwise it may not be successful. Key among the interventions listed here, is counseling. This may help the patients to have hope and this may aid in quick recovery.
American Sickle Cell Anemia Association. (2010). Research. Retrieved from http://www.ascaa.org/Research.asp
Hockenberry, M.J., & Wilson, D. (2007). Wong’s nursing care of infants and children (8th.ed.). New York: Mosby publishing group.
National Institute of Health. (2002). The management of sickle cell disease. Retrieved from http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/prof/blood/sickle/sc_mngt.pdf
Sickle Cell Disease Association of America. (n.d). Research and screening. Retrieved from http://www.sicklecelldisease.org/index.cfm?page=about-scd