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I. Introduction 
In the modern society, the mass media is becoming a powerful tool for communication. As people depend on the media as their primary source of information about the world, it substantially has an influence on people’s perspectives, behaviors, and lifestyles. This gives media the ability to impact the cultural identity and also the political structure of a country. 
In 2012, a Korean singer named ‘Psy’ released a music video of his song ‘GangNam Style’. This music video became the most watched YouTube video of the year, and this Korean pop music started to gain more attention from not only Asian countries, but also including Western countries. (scmp) As the recognition of Korean media (K-media) became more widely spread, it impacted the entire country of South Korea as it increased the exportation of products, number of foreign tourists or residents, and most importantly the transformation of the country’s cultural and political identity. 
This cultural globalization of South Korean media is recognized as a global phenomenon. The word “Hallyu” is often used to describe the globalized Korean media which means the “Korean cultural wave”. (Lee) The Hallyu has been a significant impact on the transnational creative industry, but also impacted the country’s cultural shift from its traditional identity.  
This Extended Essay will demonstrate the powers of globalized media as a rising strategy of South Korea’s national development. This means to approach the modification of the state’s behavior not only in a national level but also in an international level in order to fully analyze the impact of the globalized Korean media. It is important to acknowledge the importance of media and analyze its power as an effective tool for developing the cultural, political, and economic power of a nation. 

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II. Globalization as Korea’s development strategy 
Although globalization has been existing for a long time consistently, it was only 1994 when the president Kim Young-Sam first announced the globalization as South Korea’s new strategy for development. This was a significant moment in the nation’s history, as globalization became the key focus of South Korean government and media. (Kim)
The Korean government emphasized globalization through mass media which effective for transforming the country’s strong cultural nationalism. South Korea was a country that had been dominated and invaded by powerful nations in the history. During the Japanese Colonialism (1910-1945), the Japanese culture overwhelmed the country with its strict imperialism. This influenced the South Korean cultural identity to transform into a hierarchical, authoritarian, and non-democratic culture. It also led the country to develop strict policies on the foreign exchange even after independence from the Japanese rule (1948). 
Eventually, in 1997 South Korea faced a major financial crisis caused by severe foreign exchange shortage. Major corporations were bankrupt and the unemployment rate was vastly increased. (Morris, Waisbord) The economic crisis led the country to seek assistance from the International Monetary Fund (IMF), which insisted a structural adjustment program (SAP) to allow foreign investors to access South Korea’s capital market. At this point, the country’s cultural identity began to transform extensively. The government officially announced a financial liberalization which deregulated the capital market for foreign exchanges. 
As the domestic economy started to improve with the increasing international trade and capital inflow, globalization became a new ideology for the country’s governing method. Before the IMF’s, globalization was deemed negative and unpopular by the Korean society because it would disrupt the nation’s traditional values that had been maintained throughout the invaded history. However, after the economy was rescued by liberalizing the trade policies, Korean people realized that they were a member of the global community, it was imperative for the national boundaries to become liberalized. (koreanstudies.bg) 
In order to implement the notion of globalization to the society, the Korean government decided to utilize the media. The slogan “globalization through informatization” was used as the government’s rationale to enforce a rapid computerization to unite the country through media. (Chua) 

III. Media power structures of Korea 
The government substantially relied on the media to emphasize globalization as the rising national interest for development. Naturally, the power structures of Korean media was changed to meet the needs of the national interest. First, the government intervention with the media content is clearly diminished. There is more freedom in the industry for private media companies and broadcasting systems. It was a large structural adjustment when the government’s control over the media was demolished and each broadcasting system currently implements a self-regulation system. The major conglomerates no longer have press ownership in the media and employee groups manage the media on their own. Hyundai, Korea’s largest conglomerate, no longer holds equity in the Munwha Daily. Samsung, Korea’s second-largest conglomerate also pulled out from participating in the Kyunghyang Daily. These structural changes in terms of control and ownership in the media industry allow there to be more freedom to produce various creative contents. 
Furthermore, as the liberalized Korean economy rapidly increased the foreign exchange, the media also imported popular culture trends from different countries. The Korean broadcasting culture portrays how it has been significantly influenced by the western media. The deregulation and privatization policies facilitated the television industry to broadcast TV shows and dramas that were inspired by the American media. For example, the Korean audition program Superstar K is inspired by American Idol, which is an American TV show. Ever since Superstar K became one of the greatest trending TV show in Korea, many other Korean broadcasting companies sought inspiration from American or western media for potential TV productions. Along with foreign media inspirations, there was also increase in transnational programming. Broadcasting companies directly exported foreign media content and were able to present it to the Korean viewers. This influenced the Korean people to experience various media content other than the local programs. Not only were the Korean people have access to the globalized media content, but their cultural standards developed as they were given various choices of media. It became a structure of advancement as the viewers were constantly evolving their needs for media consumption, and the media had to satisfy this need by always presenting improved creative content. 
The transformed structure of Korean media is no longer confined to the traditional and conservative boundaries that existed before implementing globalization. It represents how the Koreans decided to expand their perspectives from the firm homogenous national identity, and participate in the global diffusion of culture. 

IV. K-media appealing to the Global society 
With the acceptance of global diffusion of culture, Korean media attracted foreign audiences and expanded their media consumer market. The liberalized Korean media appealed to both Asian and Western market as it portrayed the diffused cultural values. The phenomenon of Korea appealing to the global community through media is referred as the Korean Wave. It is an impressive phenomenon because a small country that has always been repressed between powerful nations is culturally inspiring the world with its creative media industry. However, the Korean Wave was not a random success that became overrated by the media. The Korean Wave is a planned success with the smart marketing strategies and incomparable efforts that the nation contributes to its media industry. People in the world are attracted and willing to consume Korean media productions due to its ability to satisfy the demands by influencing the cultural values and targeting specific audiences. (Jung) 

The Korean Wave targets the global community, but there is a limited chance of success if it were to copy the mainstream western culture. With the Korean traditional culture, it is difficult to create an image that would appeal to a wide range of audiences with different cultures. Therefore, the Korean media created a hybrid cultural image. This hybrid Korean cultural identity forms a broader cultural spectrum. Korean media productions incorporate traditional, modern, and international cultural values. It is a well planned strategy because the rapidly industrializing nation cannot afford any trial and error that would hinder the development. The hybrid Korean culture is systematically developed in order to guarantee a revolutionary success for the country. The K-media industry combines the contents of western pop cultures with the Korean cultural identity in order to give the Korean culture an irreplaceable value. (Jung) This unique mix of western values and Korean culture can be seen in the two legendary TV series’ that were major initiators to the success of the Korean Wave. The Winter Sonata gained massive international audiences, especially in China and Japan. The main reason for success it due to its unique storylines, but familiar archetypes that appeal to a broad range of cultures. As the plot of the Winter Sonata revolves around the memory of the characters’ childhood memories, it creates a nostalgic mood that emphasizes the past than the future. The unique part of this TV show is the fact that it tends to portray various emotions to an extreme level. Like most Korean dramas, the emotional aspect is an important fixture that allows the audience to relate to the story regardless of their culture. The characterization in Winter Sonata is also unique as it focuses on two main characters. Jun-Sang is a son of a wealthy and famous musician, and struggles with his introverted personality that causes him to think that no one truly loves him. On the other hand, the female heroine Yoo-jin is a bright and cheerful “first love” of Jun-Sang and leads him to believe that true love exists between the two characters. These characters and the plot may be ordinary, but they actually portray the archetypical Korean dramas that appeal to various cultures. Just like Winter Sonata, majority of the K-dramas focus on a male and a female that will overcome their love for each other despite the struggle of wealth difference, family issues, or personal problems. This overused storyline that depicts the famous Romeo and Juliet by Shakespeare, surprisingly never fails to attract people. It is also an additional factor that the male characters are usually extremely wealthy and introduces a new affluent life to the poor female characters. The conquered love that brings happiness and wealth at the end portrays the ideal life that everyone secretly desires regardless of their culture. 
Another TV show the Jewel in the Palace portrays the traditional Korean culture in the Joseon Dynasty. Although this TV show is deeply rooted in the Korean history and may seem relatable to only Koreans, international audiences are attracted to the distinctive portrayal of traditional Korean culture. The unique part about Jewel in the Palace is that it emphasizes the sentimental culturally unique emotion of “jeong”. The indescribable Korean emotion including longing, sorrow, hatred, and joy appeal to the foreign consumers as they stimulate the culturally universal sense of togetherness. (Hong) It is interesting because these strictly Korean elements in the dramas are the factors that attract foreign cultures to relate and also enjoy the unique aspect of Korean culture. 
The Korean Wave also uses customized marketing strategies to target specific audiences. The Korean Wave market is usually categorized by the region–the East Asia, West, and the Southeast Asian countries. (Habil)  As the East Asian region are culturally most similar and relatable, the Korean media companies prioritize advancing into China and Japan if their productions were successful in the domestic market. The Korean pop (K-pop) industry can be an example of how the Korean Wave industry satisfies the needs of various audiences. 
In the system of Kpop, the artists are called “idols”. The idols are recruited and trained by the various entertainment companies for at least two years and up to more than ten years. During this training process, the companies give mandatory language training, mostly Japanese, Chinese, and English so that the idols are able to perform regularly in foreign countries and communicate with international fans. Also, an important strategy for the K-pop industry is to recruit foreign talents who could be trained as a K-pop star. These foreign talents have the benefit of appealing to the Korean audiences but also to his/her own country without additional language training. Not only the language training, but the K-pop productions are also customized into different languages in order to satisfy the demands of foreign consumers without any barriers. (Choi) The famous K-pop boy band EXO is a perfect example of the targeting audience strategy. ‘EXO’ consists of Korean and Chinese members, and their songs are released in both Korean and Mandarin. This allows EXO to achieve a critical success as they appealed specifically to both Korean and Chinese market. 
Western countries are also becoming a larger market for the Korean Wave. As the Korean Wave started to gain more international recognition, it was a challenge to gain significant attention from countries that had both language and cultural barriers. K-media contents had to produce its unique characteristics as it emerged the western popular culture. One example of a successful and unique Kpop production is Gangnam Style by PSY. The music video of Gangnam Style became extremely viral and became the first YouTube video to reach two billion views. (Hong)  It was a surprise that this K-pop song became a global success because the lyrics were mostly in Korean. Gangnam Style showed that originality in the production is the significant factor for gaining popularity in the western pop culture. Gangnam style was able to become an international pop track not because of its musical aspects, but because of Psy’s singular characteristics that distinguish himself from the rest of the pop stars. Mark Simos, songwriting professor at Berklee College of Music stated “It’s a fact that he’s both adopting pop culture and mocking it at the same time.” Psy’s physical appearance as a typical Korean middle aged man called the “ajussi”, makes himself an affable anti-pop star, while his wild performances make it hard to call him typical. The music video of Gangnam Style also played a significant role in making Psy the global K-pop star. In the video, Psy with his outrageous costumes portrays himself as a quirky, foolish character that demonstrates a satirical humor with the subversive message about the wealth and class of the modern Korean society. As Psy plays a ridiculous character of a “Gangnam man” while satirizing the Korean obsession of wealth, he appeals a singular identity that is not the typical K-Pop star. (Fisher) Ken McLeod, professor of music history and culture at the University of Toronto said this kind of pop music sensation is highly unlikely to be duplicated. Psy demonstrates such an exceptional identity that goes against the archetypical pop star, making him an impactful initiator of the Korean Wave in the Western culture. 

V. Implications of Globalized K-media
Globalization of the Korean media has played a significant role in every area of the country, including its cultural, political, and economic systems. As to South Korea’s economy, the globalized media became a new creative and successful development model. The globalization of Korean media was a significant factor in promoted products in the international market. After the International Monetary Fund reconstructing the country’s economic and trade policies, the globalized Korean media was the factor that allowed the country to become truly neoliberal. Although the Korean economy has successfully developed through globalization and neoliberal policies, the cultural identity of Korea may have received a negative impact. 

When the liberalized media increased the portrayal of western popular culture, it was inevitable for the Korean nationalism to become modified in a collective manner. The changed Korean media became a major influence on the country’s cultural identity with the diffusion of various culture, and expansion of the capital market. The Korean Wave is a positive example of the cultural diffusion caused by the country’s development method. However, the cultural diffusion also can also be viewed negatively as it infringes upon the cultural sovereignty of the nation. With the beginning of globalization through media, the country rapidly developed their hybrid culture which created a cultural discontinuity between the traditional and modern Korean culture. The traditional Korean culture that was deeply influenced by the Japanese colonialism had a continuous value of the Korean being a unified identity. The rapid globalization made the country indiscriminate the influx of western culture which divided the unified traditional cultural identity. The Korean government prioritized their economic development in order to improve people’s quality of life. However, the rapid development required the country’s cultural sovereignty to be infringed by western values. It is evident that currently, Korean people are fixated on improving their quality of life based on the western standards. 
On the other hand, globalization of the media was a positive impact on the country’s political identity. Before the rapid globalization and the IMF interference, the existing political regime promoted strong nationalism and dominated the economy. Western influence through the media allowed Korean people to understand that legitimacy of the government comes from the people. The media impacted Korea’s political identity to become more democratized, following the western countries. 
Furthermore, as South Korea became more democratic with the western influenced, the media was able to be used as a weapon of soft power. The k-media is a symbol of South Korea’s advancing technology and participation in the global community. (Korea Focus) Therefore, k-media allows there to be a clear distinction of South Korea when compared to North Korea. The K-pop music is often used as a form of propaganda by playing across the Korean Demilitarized Zone, which is the crossing borders with North Korea. The government utilizes K-media as a form of soft power that sends a positive message about the life of freedom in South Korea compared to the life under the totalitarian regime of North Korea. Furthermore, K-media is an implicit presentation of South Korea as a developed nation in the global community. With this, it can be seen that the South Korean government will continue to invest significantly in the media industry for using it as the country’s cultural, political, and economic development. 

VI. Conclusion 

In essence, 
Why understanding of globalized media is needed
Summarize the effects globalized media +


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