areas are tidal or coastal habitat of those kinds of shrubs and trees which are
salt-tolerant. Mangroves have a mixture of plants types compared to rainforests.
A mangrove shrub, palm, tree, commonly exceeding 0.2-0.5 meter in height, that
usually grow above the level of the sea. One of the most dominant coastal
ecosystems in the world are mangroves. Mangrove trees and shrubs are uniquely
adopted to marine salty area (Duke 1992). Mangrove trees grow in those places
where there are mixture of seawater and fresh water. Mangrove areas are
generally classified into six types based on biological, geophysical factors.
They are (1) tide dominated (2) river dominated (3) wave dominated (4) drowned
bedrock valley mangroves (5) composite river and wave dominated (6) mangroves
in carbonate settings (Thom, 1984). The first five types of mangrove areas or
lands can be observed on coasts dominated by terrigenous diluvium whereas mangroves
in carbonate settings can be seen in carbonate banks, coral reefs and oceanic
islands. Environment of mangrove area is extremely harsh and dynamic. However,
the species of this area are highly able to cope with this environmental
aim of this essay is to discuss about the largest mangrove area in the world:
Sundarban and the environmental and ecological impact on it by human activities
and to suggest ways to solve the problems and difficulties.
Sundarbans: The largest mangrove area/
forest in the world
Sundarbans is the largest mangrove wetland in the world which lies on the delta
of the Brahmaputra, Meghna, Ganges rivers on the Bay of Bengal. This wonderful
mangrove area extends across Khulna, Bagerhat, Satkhira districts of Bangladesh
and North 24 Parganas, South 24 parganas districts of India. It has the area of
10000 square kilometers; of which about 6000 square km is situated in Bangladesh
and 4000 sq. km in India (UNESCO).
Source: Google Map 2018(Google Inc.)
part and the Bangladeshi part of Sundarbans
has been declared and listed separately in the UNESCO World Heritage list as “Sundarban
National Park” and “Sundarbans”