Problem: daily sea ice and sea surface temperature

Problem: The icebergs formed from breaking off of Larsen C ice shelf will start in the Southern Ocean’s Weddell Sea and will eventually move into the Antarctic Circumpolar Current or into the South Atlantic. According to the ESA, the icebergs may reach as far as the Falkland Islands which is more than 1000 miles away from the Larsen C ice shelf. When icebergs break off from ice shelves, which means a large portion of the ice shelf is lost, the flow of glaciers will accelerate, hence contributing to sea-level rise. Since a large portion of the Larsen Ice Shelf has broken off, more disintegration may also happen to the remaining ice sheet where it undergoes thinning at a rate of between 6-9 feet per year. Also, just like the Pine Island Ice Shelf, the moving iceberg may also pose a hazard to maritime traffic as ocean currents and tides drag the fragmentation of icebergs, which may pose a hazard for ships, according to Anna Hogg from the University of Leeds. This problem may also happen to the Larsen Ice Shelves.Data Needed:  1. Atmospheric Temperature, 2. Ocean Temperature, 3. Sea level height, 4. Ice shelf thickness5. Ocean current velocities Instruments Needed: Investigation of Ice Shelf StructureGPR and dGPS (Differential GPS): These are used to observe the structure of ice shelf including thickness of ice shelf. Normally, the GPR system needs to be towed on a vehicle such as a snow-scooter. Investigation of Ice Shelf Interactions with ocean processesMoorings instrumented with CTD units: It can be used to measure several aspects such as ocean temperatures and ice shelf thickness. Detection of Surface MeltSatellite microwave instruments: It provides daily imaging by cloud-independent microwave instruments so as to effectively measure the surface melt on large ice bodies such as ice shelves. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR): It is a satellite active microwave imaging method which is capable of obtaining data at a higher spatial resolution than scatterometer or radiometer. It can be used to acquire near daily images at polar latitudes. Meteorological ModellingMet Office Unified Model (MetUM): It can be used to investigate meteorological conditions on Larsen C Ice Shelf. It employs a non-hydrostatic, fully compressible, deep atmosphere with a semi-implicit, semi-Langrangian, predictor-corrector scheme to solve equation of motion. The model uses high resolution daily sea ice and sea surface temperature fields derived from the Operational Sea Surface Temperature and Sea Ice Analysis (OSTIA) system. Identification of Surface PondSatellite Remote Sensing: To detect and measure lakes or ponds on ice shelves. For example, Landsat, MODIS and Envisat ASAR WSM can be used to yield observations of melting ponds. Detection of Sea-Level RiseGRACE Satellite: It can be used to determine amount of sea level rise due to thermal expansion. Tide gauges: To measure height of sea-levelCurrent meters: To measure ocean current velocitiesResearch vessels: To collect CTD data, meteorological data such as atmospheric temperature which also affects melting of ice shelves and to place and retrieve moorings.


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