Sensory impulse Conversion of a graded potential into

Sensory Modalities

A sensory modality is a way of sensing, like vision or hearing. Modality in someone’s
voice gives a sense of the person’s mood. In logic, modality has to do
with whether a proposition is necessary, possible, or impossible. In general, amodality is a
particular way in which something exists.

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Stimulus modality, also called sensory modality, is one aspect of
a stimulus or what we perceive after a stimulus. For example, the temperature modality is registered
after heat or cold stimulate a receptor. Some sensory modalities include: light, sound, temperature, taste, pressure,
and smell.

•       General
Senses:

1.  Somatic
(Exteroceptors)

a.  Touch b.  Pressure c. Temperature d. Proprioception e.  Pain

2.  Visceral
(Interoceptors)

                                                a.  Pain      
b.  Pressure

•       
Special Senses

a.  Smell or Olfaction b.  Taste or Gustation c.  Sight or Vision

          d.  Sound or Auditory   e.  Balance or Equilibrium

Stimulation
of a sensory receptor
Transduction
of the stimulus

                   Conversion
of the stimulus into a graded potential

3.    Generation
of an impulse

                   Conversion
of a graded potential into an action potential at a trigger zone and propagation
to CNS.

4.    Integration
of sensory input

 

Classification of General Sensory Receptors

Summary of Tactile Sensory Receptors

 

Summary of Sensory Receptors

 

 

Classification
of  Special Sensory Receptors
 

 

 

 

AUDITORY

                   Auditory learners learn best through hearing,
using their ears and their voices as the primary way to learn. They learn best
through verbal lectures, discussions, talking things through and listening to
what others have to say. Auditory learners interpret the underlying meanings of
speech through listening to tone of voice, pitch, speed and other nuances.
Written information may have little meaning until it is heard. These learners
often benefit from reading text aloud and using a tape recorder.

VISUAL

              Visual learners need to see the
material to learn most effectively. They need to see the teacher’s body
language and facial expression to fully understand the content of a lesson.
They may think in pictures and learn best from visual displays including:
diagrams, illustrated text books, overhead transparencies, videos, flipcharts
and hand-outs. During a lecture or classroom discussion, visual learners often
prefer to take detailed notes to absorb the information.

KINESTHETIC

                      Kinesthetic learners are
those who learn best by doing. Kinesthetic persons learn best through a
hands-on approach, actively exploring the physical world around them. They may
find it hard to sit still for long periods and may become distracted by their
need for activity and exploration.

Chemoreceptions

                                  A sensory nerve cell or sense organ, as
of smell, or taste, that are able to detect and respond to chemical
stimuli.               OR

A sensory receptor that
detects chemical stimuli in the environment and relay that information to the central nervous system.

 

Explaination

A chemoreceptor, also known as chemosensor, is a specialized sensory receptor cell which transduces (responds
to) a chemical substance (endogenous or induced) and generates a biological
signal. This signal may be in the form of an action potential if the chemoreceptor is a neuron (nerve
cells or in form of neurotransmitter that activate nearby a nerve fibers if
chemosensor is a specialized sensory receptor cell, such as taste receptor in taste bud or in internal peripheral chemoreceptor such
as carotid body. In more general terms, a chemosensor detects
toxic or hazardous chemicals in the internal or external environment of the
human body and transmits that information to the central nervous system, and
rarely the peripheral nervous system,
in order to expel the biologically active toxins from the blood, and prevent
further consumption of alcohol and/or other acutely toxic recreational
intoxicants.

Examples

Examples of distance chemoreceptors

Example
1

 Olfactory
receptor neurons in the olfactory system.Olfaction involves the ability to
detect chemicals in the gaseous state. In vertebrates, the olfactory system
detects odors and pheromones in the nasal cavity.Within the olfactory
system there are two anatomically distinct organs: the main olfactory
epithelium (MOE) and the vomeronasal organ(VNO). It was
initially thought that the MOE is responsible for the detection of odorants,
while the VNO detects pheromones. The current view,
however, is that both systems can detect odorants and pheromones.1 Olfaction in
invertebrates differs from olfaction in vertebrates. For example, in insects,
olfactory sensilla are present on their antennae.

Example 2

Taste buds in the gustatory system: The primary use of gustation
as a type of chemoreception is for the detection of tasteants. Aqueous chemical
compounds come into contact with chemoreceptors in the mouth, such as taste
buds on the tongue, and trigger responses. These chemical compounds can either
trigger an appetitive response for nutrients, or a defensive response against
toxins depending on which receptors fire. Fish and crustaceans, who are
constantly in an aqueous environment, use their gustatory system to identify
certain chemicals in the mixture for the purpose of localization and ingestion
of food.

Example 3

Insects use
contact chemoreception to recognize certain chemicals such as cuticular
hydrocarbons and chemicals specific to host plants. Contact chemoreception is
more commonly seen in insects but is also involved in the mating behavior of
some vertebrates. The contact chemoreceptor is specific to one type of
chemical.

 

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