SUMMARY OF ARTICLE
Physical education teacher’s views of effective teaching methods in physical education published in 2012 by Abdurrahman Aktop and Nilufer Karahan , Akdeniz University School of Physical Education and Sport, Turkey Physical Education Teacher, Turkey. This article is to study the difference between men and women physical education teacher in selecting various teaching method and Turkish physical education curriculum. Moreover, Turkish physical education curriculums have been renew by Ministry of National Education from curriculum based on behaviorist understanding to curriculum based on constructivist paradigm and multiple intelligence theory for primary school in 2006 and secondary school in 2010.
Besides, this researcher used questionnaire method to investigate 66 participate which is 32 men and 34 women who are Primary and Secondary teacher of Antalya city center in Turkey. The question have 36 item related to teachers’ demographic, characteristic, method selection in the Mosston’s spectrum of teaching styles and views about new physical education curriculum. Firstly, female physical education teacher mostly preferred command while male physical education teacher mostly use practice method for teaching method which produce a good outcome. Secondly, teaching in the classroom, both men and women of physical education teacher commonly used command style while self-check and guided discovery is less used in physical education teacher. Thirdly, both physical education teachers prefer expository teaching strategies. Lastly, both male and female teacher think the new Turkish physical education curriculum is insufficient and ineffective.
In addition, Turkish physical education teacher prefer teacher centred teaching rather than student centred teaching. The new curriculum introduced by the Turkey education system is to increase students’ awareness of self-learning through holistic learning experiences which have various instructional strategies and materials. Next, Turkish emphasizes that no longer used traditional teaching method which is a student is a passive learner. The new curriculum focus on constructivist instead of behaviourist approaches. Mostly, physical education teacher have negative view of new curriculum because of strangeness. These problems because of there are no opinion and views from the students, teachers, inspectors, parents, coaches and academics in developing process of new curriculum. Therefore, before being realized the new curriculum the feedback and modification from others is very important.
Mostly Turkish physical education teacher preferred command and practice for teaching method but self-check and guided discovery is less used in physical education teacher. I want to highlight that every type of teaching style have their own strength and weakness, so let discuss about it. All physical and education teacher around the world, mostly prefer command and practices styles.
The command style is teacher will give a demonstration and explain of the movement. The demonstration able the students to see the skill accomplished correctly. For example, teacher show step by step in how to throw javelin. This teaching style is very efficient method of accomplishing the teaching and learning. While practice style is start with a demonstration and explanation of what is to be achieved. Usually, this style is very useful when coaching. For example, teacher demonstrates how to perform short pass in netball, but before it teacher will explain first about short pass and telling when and why this technique use.
Besides, both teaching method have similar advantage which is both style gives student clear description of how to performance and accomplished. Therefore, possible of the task being complete on time and dealing with large crowds. However, command and practice styles also have disadvantages which is teacher assume students are in the same ability level but students who beyond the ability that lack the skill needed to performed at this level can cause student have no input in the lesson, left behind and lead to fail. Moreover, it does not allow critical thinking in student with student only accept input from the teacher.
Next, self-check and guided discovery is less used in physical education teacher. Both also have it strength and weakness. Self-Check style is to develop own practice task and involve in self-assessment that is guided by the teacher. For example, teacher give writing weight training exercise in the paper and student must follow it. Furthermore, self-check styles have some advantages which are student able to perform the task by follow their ability means progress by their own pace. In addition, student also able to develop their critical thinking and not only learning by visual. However, disadvantages of self-check style are teacher unable to evaluate the right evaluation of the student because student have low skill which they unable to correctly analyse.
Next, guided discovery is to engage student in discovery learning through the guided process. Then, allow student to make their own decision in learning. For example, students try different start positions for the forward roll in gymnastics. The advantage of this style, enhance student think out of the box. Thus, focuses both on the cognitive and psychomotor skills. It also support student to develop positive self-belief and challenge them to find new movement. The disadvantage of guided discovery style is time consuming. It takes lot of time before the teacher finally guides the students to the proper and correct movement.
Therefore, the command and practice teaching style used in lesson which aim on good organized, have a united response, save time or have direct learn to the task are suggested but if the aim is to have the students think for develop a greater understanding of the proper movements, the guided discovery teaching style is suggested. Thus, every teaching style has their advantages and disadvantages so teachers should be able to skilfully and effectively use all the teaching styles depending on what the situation requests for.
Some of Turkish teachers cannot accept student centred teaching. However, students centred teachings have may benefit and advantages. Firstly, constructivist approach can develop thinking skills which students have their prior knowledge and experience as they attempt to solve a problem. Thus, students continually integrate new knowledge into existing knowledge and resources that will be available for future problem solving needs. Other than that, students also learn to make connections a by relating the subject matter to their own life experience and student experience in thinking in solving problems than the solution facts and information by learning how to see implications and apply them to other situations.
Secondly, student centred teaching can develop communication and social skills. Students must learn how to clearly express their ideas as well as to cooperate on tasks effectively. For example, student can share the idea and solution of group assessment. Students must exchange ideas and so must learn to discuss with others which lead to enhance better communication, can help to build social skills and self-esteem. This is important to success in the real and future world, since students always be exposed to a variety of experiences.
Thirdly is promotes intrinsic motivation to learn. Intrinsic motivation is the desire to take on a task because it is enjoyable and interesting rather than for a reward. For example, students are motivated to study because it stimulates them to receive a good grade. Moreover, emphasis generates confidence and self-esteem lead motivates the student to handle challenge and problem.
This article have made research on both primary and secondary school and I think the different of teaching style and teaching strategies is quite difference between primary and secondary school. The student behaviour and characteristic for both school stages may lead to difference of teaching style and strategies. Therefore, some primary teacher prefers other teaching style and strategies while the secondary teacher preferred otherwise. In 2012 article a comparative analysis between primary and secondary teachers a self-determination perspective by Perlman D. J. and Pearson P., University of Wollongong. The result of study shows differences within instruction between primary and secondary teachers. Moreover, support can impact on education of students which the traditionally prescriptive environment of schools can stop motivation, therefore focus students on the instructional goals that supportive instruction can be positive toward student motivation. The studies also describe the curricular approaches and units of study have been known to influence the perceptions of students within physical education.
In conclusion, teaching style is very important and can enhance teaching effectiveness. However, there is no method set for each learning which different methods are appropriate for different learning. Furthermore, teaching methods are component of interactions are entangled in a teaching. Besides, the commitment of the teacher, the physical and psychological conditions of the teaching space, the commitment of the learners, support of parents, the relationship between the curriculum and the interests and needs of the students are plays an important role and a big impact in teaching and learning.
Nowadays, used in combination with active learning teaching strategies and the traditional learning also can be an effective way to achieve instructional goals. Both teacher centred learning and student centred learning have their own strengthens and weakness. Therefore, the teacher should establish their own teaching style, which can most benefit students based on the student ability level. Moreover, teacher cannot expect to use student centred learning all the time and in every aspect of the teaching process. Lastly, student attractions and motivated in learning possibilities on teacher teaching style and strategies.