Synthetic acid (PLA), Polyglycolic acid (PGA), Polyhydroxy butyrate

Synthetic
compounds often referred to as “plastics” are derived from petroleum.
Because of their desirable properties, they are used as starting material for
manufacturing of biodegradable polymers.

 

Polyvinyl
alcohol (PVA), Poly (- caprolactone) (PCL), Poly lactic acid (PLA),
Polyglycolic acid (PGA), Polyhydroxy butyrate (PBS) are examples of synthetic
biopolymers. Aliphatic aromatic copolyesters have technical properties
resembling to those of polyethylene(LDPE).

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Polycaprolactone:

Being a biodegradable polyester,
Polycaprolactone (PCL) has low melting point of around
60 °C and a glass progress temperature of about ?60 °C. The
most well-known utilization of polycaprolactone is in the fabrication of
speciality polyurethanes. Mostly, this polymer is used as an added
substance for gums to enhance their preparing qualities and their end use
properties.

Polyesteramidese:

 

In the structures of these polymers, both
ester and amide linkages are present and they accumulate in a similar entity
the great degradability of polyesters with the great thermo-mechanical
properties of polyamides. Especially, poly(ester amide)s containing ?-amino
acids have ascended as essential materials in the biomedical field. The
nearness of the ?-amino corrosive adds to better cell– polymer connections,
permits the presentation of pendant responsive gatherings, and upgrades the
general biodegradability of the polymers.

 

PBHV:

PHBV i.e., Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate
is a polyhydroxyalkanoate-type polymer. Plastic formed naturally by bacteria
is biodegradable, nontoxic, biocompatible and a good alternative
for many non-biodegradable synthetic polymers. It is a thermoplastic linear
aliphatic polyester.

Bacteria synthesizes PHBV as storage
compounds under growth limiting conditions

 

PHA

PHAs i.e., Polyhydroxyalkanoates are polyesters
and are produced by various microorganisms naturally as well as
through bacterial fermentation of sugar or lipids.
They serve as crbon as well as energy source. The mechanical properties
and biocompatibility of PHA can also be altered by blending,
modifying the surface or combining PHA with other polymers, enzymes and
inorganic materials, making it possible for a wider implementation s in various
fields.

Being biodegradable, Polyactic Acid has
characteristics similar to polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE), or
polystyrene (PS). This makes it relatively cost efficient to produce.
Accordingly, PLA has the second largest production volume of any bioplastic
(the most common typically cited as thermoplastic starch).

PBAT

 

PBAT i.e., polybutylene adipate
terephthalate is an arbitrary copolymer that is biodegradable,
specifically a polyester of  dimethyl terephthalate and adipic
acid, 1,4-butanediol. It is generally sold as a fully biodegradable
alternative to low-density polyethylene, that have many similar properties
including flexibility and pliability, that allows it to be used for many
similar habits such as plastic bags and wraps.

 

Poly(glycerol
sebacate) (PGS) have applicability in 3D scaffolds and bone scaffolding.
Polycaprolactone (PCL) have clnical applications of electrospun scaffolds, thin
films and honeycomb architectures. Polyurethane Wound healing, cardiac tissue
engineering, skin grafting

Polytetra?uoroethylene
(PTFE) is used for Cell free, non-modi?able structure with minimal degradation
for 2D surfaces and implants Cardiac repair, vascular grafts. Polyurethane
Wound healing, cardiac tissue engineering, skin grafting

PLA is the most promising synthetic biopolymer and  is unique in
relation to most thermoplastic polymers. Most plastics, by differentiate, are
derived from the refining and polymerization of nonrenewable oil reserves.
Plastics that are derived from biomass (e.g. PLA) are known as
“bioplastics.”

It is made from
agriculture renewable sources like corn starch or sugar
stick. PLA, PGA, PLGA are
extensively used as nanocomposites, drug delivery , wound  healing, tissue engineering for composite
film coatings, to treat patients suffering from damaged or lost organs or
tissues. They have exhibited the properties of biocompatibility, non-toxicity
and biodegradability. But its relatively high price temperature resistivity and
low biodegradability has prevented it from reaching a large scale market. 

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