TABLE needs and wants of individual e.g. primary











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place and people

psychology explained

on i/o

Mode of carrying out industrial psychology

functions of i/o psyv

of i/o psychology

and reviews























              Is a short term for term industrial and
organizational psychology and this is a field of science that deals majorly
with the study of human behavior in the workplace, mentally and emotionally,
physical to and all other forms that involves workplace behavior (Spector,
2008, Jex 2002) stated by (Meacham 2017)




Having a
responsibility in any organization gives man a sense of character, and this
distinguishes him and may tend to derive a term to which he might be referred
to as “responsible”, work has been seen as a part of humanity that promotes
ones socio economic status and gives one a sense of belonging and a label.”
Philosophers may translate such vernacular lines into “I work, therefore I
am.”(Green, 1993)


      Having an occupation or
something to do on a daily basis be a huge responsibility, heading a group of
companies in partnerships, supervising a significant number of people,
overseeing a large project or participating in one, having the huge workload
and ensuring a goal is met is a huge part of everyday life, having to be liable
for anything and being in charge of a particular work situation has been termed
to be an essential human requirement in order to function, asides from the fact
that a significant financial gain is incurred in which helps to meet the daily
needs and wants of individual e.g. primary needs ,regular food shelter and
clothing, secondary needs car, shopping expenses, vacation etc. in essence,
work is a variant, but the reason people still find the need to have one is
what makes it unique in everyway possible, and how everyone can relate to it
knowing there is a need from being part of an organization that they are part
of knowing the tremendous advantage it bring them.


and organizational psychology if split in two to be explained individually
would be as follows

Industrial and organizational
psychology are intertwined, the industrial aspect majorly channels towards organizational
behavior in respect of the organizations progression, this aspect also
involves, hiring, training and practices, professional selection, etc, the
major aim here is to improve on the organizations goals and select the right
applicants and team to fulfill that.

The organizational arm on the other
hand focuses mainly on the employees, this takes major steps in ensuring that
the employees are comfortable enough to function in the work environment, it
could also include ensuring there are motivations in place to properly secure
the well being of the employees (Spector, 2008, Jex, 2002). One way or the
other these two separate but aligned topics have one or more things In common,
and one of them is the fact that without a proper work environment the staff
cannot function, and that deters the organizations goals, and also when the
wrong people are employed the organizations suffers the set backs as well, in
this context I like the quote “pay peanuts and get monkeys” (James goldsmith)


          It is presumed to have started out in the
United States and a few other countries in the inception basically Wilhelm
Wundt, who founded a psychological laboratory in 1876 in Leipzig, Germany, he
further nurtured two other psychologists who further brought industrial /
organizational psychology to lime light, they are Hugo Munsterberg and James
Mckeen Cattell, however Mckeen Cattell worked at the same inststute (Caregie
institute of technology) with Walter Dill Scott, the president of American
Psychology Institute, and they began advance discoveries  on expanding their discovery. Fast forward to
the World War 1, where there was a need to disperse army men to various
strategic points, Scott and Bingham were able to place over one million men and
they were able to achieve this by the knowledge of the industrial
organizational psychology they had been working on, but they had advanced on it
and had a peculiar testing system called the Army Alpha and this was in 1917,
and it was successful enough to earn its own name and system of operation, to
the extent that industries and organizations began to adapt the system of

Industrial psychology however got
its footing in 1924 Elton Mayo was in United States on seeing how productive
workers were, he became fascinated and took up a study to be able to integrate
workers and employers, as well as the understanding between them, also enabling
workers and how they can be skilled in their duties while deriving
satisfaction, further studies were done and name ‘Hawthorne Studies” which is
now generally known as human relations (HR) , which is generally known to be
involved in recruiting and ensuring the right qualified personnel for the job,
as well as keeping them happy and comfortable while delivering their official


Research methods for i/o

Research is important to be able to
buttress the factual knowledge existing, for example, the requirements for an
open job position will carry instructions as to who can apply, based on the
level of qualification, job experience and also the persons intended
remuneration, work hours, flexibility, and a lot of other descriptions that go
with the job, if industrial psychologists were to pick the first person who
meets this requirements based on the first few documents they go through, they
would have denied themselves the further opportunity to discover a lot more
that other candidates can offer, e.g. Language, skills, communication and
technical skills as well, however when proper and further research methods are
explored they discover more knowledge and information on the other candidates
and even decide on what other fields they may easily fit into

Industrial / organizational psychologists
use the following modes for research


Observation methods

Quantitative methods

Qualitative methods


Quasi experiments


There is also
a formal manual and quick response systems such as staff database and
information, basic professional judgment, work productivity and results, these
basic methods helps to strengthen their knowledge on staffs information as well
as improve their productivity which in result is a win-win for both staff and
the organization, because the industrial psychologist finds a balance and
ensures there is proper attention paid to the qualities of each employee.

Although in
the long run most of these conclusions are drawn fro humans and may not be
electronically based, there is a huge possibility of favoritism and or bias,
and so while a level of professionalism is strived to be achieved, some
decisions might still be questioned, the questionnaire method for example is
likely to be compromised from many indications of not properly looking for the
right angle or people to answer the questions appropriately, and this leads to
wrong data or information collection. Which In turn takes a toll on the general
results and has an effect on the company and its productivity

Having stated all of these it would
be incomplete without a proper explanation on the basic description of what an
industrial psychologist does as well as its team and other functions



































Wikis (2014) Industrial and organizational psychology


Archie Green (1993) ,
Wobblies, pile, butts and other heroes , university of Illinois press


Jex, S (2002). Organizational
Psychology: A Scientist-Practitioner Approach. Retrieved from the University of
Phoenix eBook Collection database.

Seta Wicaksana (2016) Research
methods in industrial and organizational psychology.  Retrieved from

Spector, P (2008). Industrial and
Organizational Psychology: Research and Practice (5th ed).

Retrieved from the University of Phoenix eBook Collection database.

Wesley Meacham (2017) history of
industrial and organizational psychology





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