Teaching behavior and manage the learning environment (Positive

Teaching
student’s instructional material has become challenging for educators, because
much of their class time is being spent addressing behavioral obstacles within
the classroom. When a student interrupts their class to seek peer attention by inappropriately
blurting out, distracting others, horse playing, and getting out of his/her
seat, it can be disruptive to a student who is trying to learn and can also
take away from instructional time. Although all children misbehave at some
point, they eventually learn how to behave appropriately depending on what
setting they are in. However, some children require extra support and
instruction to learn how to follow rules and behave appropriately. A teacher’s
most effective tool is his/her ability to prevent inappropriate behavior from
occurring in the classroom. Positive Behavioral Intervention and Support (PBIS)
is a multi-tiered framework, that helps teachers achieve important behavior
changes with their students. What kind of
behavior changes? Example?

PBSI is
“a multi-tiered system designed to be inclusive of all environments and link
research-validated practices” (cite). PBIS “represent a fundamental shift in
managing unacceptable behavior from reactive, punitive responses, to
challenging behavior to a proactive emphasis on the prevention of the behavioral
problems by using positive, instructional, research-based strategies to teach
and encourage appropriate behavior and manage the learning environment (Positive
Behavioral Support for the Classroom, YEAR). The three tiered model that Positive
Behavior Intervention and Support components creates and sustains primary
school wide, secondary classroom, and tertiary individual systems of support
that improve results for desired behavior. The Primary prevention is called universal
level tier 1 and is used school-wide for all students, staff, and settings. The
primary prevention includes procedures for teaching school and classroom
expected behavior, and is a continuum of procedures for encouraging/discouraging
appropriate behavior. An example of a procedure that can be used for teaching school
and classroom behavioral expectations is: “always do your best, do as asked,
use your inside voice, and raise your hand to speak. John I like the way you
are staying in your seat working. You are following the class rules. Good job!”
Primary prevention precludes the development of new incidents involving problem
behaviors, by implementing a healthy, high quality learning environment for all
students, staff, and settings. Universal-level behavioral approaches include:
establishing and teaching school-wide expectations, acknowledging rule-following
behaviors, and monitoring behavioral indicators to quickly identify students
who are not responding to the universal-level strategies (AuthorLastName, YEAR).

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The secondary tier of PBIS is the target level.

Secondary
prevention is a specialized group system for students who exhibit at risk
behaviors. Students may have an IEP if there is evidence of an underlying
disability, and requires comprehensive assessment to determine if the student
has a disability under IDEA or 504. If a student has an IEP and their behaviors
hinder their learning, specialized instruction is needed to help set goals for
their educational progress. These students may receive instruction in a small
group setting that targets deficit areas, such as reading fluency or writing,
and will be monitored frequently to check their progress. A behavior contract that
works in conjunction with a subsequent reward system, can be put in place to
monitor a student’s behavior, to meet a preset goal, and/or to enhance
self-regulation and self-control. Secondary behavior interventions may include:
social skills instruction for identified students, or frequent reminders and
feedback about expected behavior (AuthorLastName, YEAR). A student who has a
mentor that checks in with them on a daily or weekly basis to discuss goals,
expectation, and progress is an example of secondary behavior intervention. If
a student is unresponsive to primary intervention practices, secondary
prevention can be used as means to decrease the frequency and intensity of
incidents of inappropriate behavior. The last component of PBIS is tertiary intervention.

The
tertiary-level of PBIS provides therapeutic intervention for students. An
example of this would be an FBA based behavior support plan that integrates
observations and behavioral therapy. This level involves an FBA-based behavior
intervention plan, replacement behavior training, and home and community
support for high risk behaviors. A student with disruptive tendencies who has a
disability or has difficulty completing their schoolwork, may receive a
behavioral plan that addresses those tendencies and helps the student display
more appropriate. Parent involvement is a key factor in establishing a behavior
plan, because when a parent inputs their target goals it reduces the frequency
of problem behaviors in their child. The tertiary tier involves reducing the
frequency, intensity, and complexity of behavior problems, that are resistant to
primary or secondary intervention by providing most individualized responses to
situations where inappropriate behavior is likely. Tertiary-level academic
intervention may require the use of a separate curriculum with specialized
instructional methods, including individualized reading and/or math plans.

Tertiary-level behavioral interventions involve both the careful assessment and
analysis of behavior, and individual specific interventions which may include
social services and/or mental health services in addition to school-based
intervention (AuthorLastName, YEAR).        

PBIS is
a multi-tiered positive behavior support framework, in which three tiers join
to form a model that is designed to enhance the quality of life and minimize
problem behavior for students with intellectual disabilities. The primary level—also
known as the universal-level—consists of prevention strategies that are
implemented school-wide, for all students, staff, and settings, to promote good
behavior and proactive classroom management. The second tier is called
secondary intervention because…. Intervention is implemented for at risk
students who may need small groups and individualized strategy plans to succeed
educationally and socially. The tertiary level targets high risk students who
in need of intense individualized intervention. How does it target high risk students? A FBA-based behavior
intervention plan, replacement behavior training, and home and community
support are examples of intervention strategies that can be used in conjunction
with PBIS. Concluding sentence.

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