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The history of essential oil’s dates back thousands of years And has been used in incense, perfumes, cosmetics, and culinary practices. Believed to have religious and therapeutic roles, essential oil’s have been an integral part of tradition in most early cultures. I get a part are burned in the west of frankincense is used by Roman Catholics in mass some of these practices are still used today. In 2000 BC over 700 substances including cinnamon, spikenard, ginger, myrrh, coriander and sandalwood were found in Vedic literature in India. Essential oils were considered more than just perfumes, and the handling of the Herb is considered a secret task as part of humanity in nature.Dating back more than 2000 years BC The yellow emperors book of internal medicine used acupuncture as a part of ancient Chinese herbal traditions. Utilized for its religious purposes were opium and ginger;  They were used in the Li-ki  and Tcheou-Li ceremonies in the earliest of times. Still used today in China for ritual or purposes are Borneo and Campher and they are used quite extensively.During the reign of Khufu around 2800 BC the ancient Egyptian civilization use many medicinal herbs. Aromatic gums and oil’s were made. Cedar and myrrh remain detectible thousands of years later after the embalming process. In pots of the tomb the essential oils of Styrax and Frankincense were placed. The people of the Nile Valley had in-scripted  in the stone was a complete iconographically of the process and preparation for such oils of the balsams and fermented liqueurs. One remedy said to be an antiseptic, soothing , an antidote to poison and it could lull one to sleep,also alley anxiety and brighten  dreams was also known as Kyphi.  It was a mix of 16 different ingredients which could be used as an incense a perfume or taken internally as medicine. Essential oil’s were a rare and highly prized item and they were the earliest trade item of the ancient world. In 1240 BC Jewish people took precious gums, oils and the knowledge of their use when they made an exodus from Egypt to Israel. A special anointing oil that included Myrrh, cinnamon, calamus, cassia and olive oil was transmitted to Moses by the Lord according to the box of exodus. Used to consecrate Aaron and his sons into priesthood was a holy oil that was used from generation to generation.  Treasures that were brought from the east an offered to Jesus at birth included frankincense and myrrh.Kept as a closely guarded secret were the  trading routes were the exported oil’s were transported to all the different areas. Exported oil’s and gums to the Arabian Peninsula were from Phoenician merchants and they gradually spread to the Mediterranean region particularly Greece and Rome.  Cinnamon from India, gums from Arabia, rose from Syria, and camper from China for all introduced to the west by the Phoenician merchants.In 425 BC Method distillation of turpentine was first recorded by Herodotus. Herodotus  and Democrates visited Egypt during the fifth century BC. They learned a great deal from the Egyptians. In a detailed study of plants and aromatics employed by Greeks and Romans was written by Dioscorides. Materia Medica was compiled into a five volumes known as Herbarius.Known as the father of medicine Hippocrates was born in Greece in 460BC. He prescribed perfume and fumigation’s as medicine in practice.  Like the Egyptians used both as a perfume am ready for the skin information and battle wounds was Kyphi. More lavish than the Greeks in the use of perfumes in a aromatic oils were the Romans. They often had fragrance in their hair, on their bodies, their clothes and their beds. They use large amounts for massaging after a bath. Fleeing to Constantinople were Roman physicians at the fall of the Roman Empire. The books of Galun, Hippocrates, and Dioscorides were taken with them. This knowledge was passed on to the Arab world as the work of the Graeco-Romans were translated into Arabic, Persian, and other languages at the end of the Byzantine Empire. At this time Europe entered the so called dark ages,Rose was most cherished by Islam had several books written about it by Aviceena. He was known at a great man of science between the 7th and 13th centuries. A break through in the art of distillation was the invention of the refrigerated coil and Avicenna was credited with this invention. Avicenna used this invention to produce pure essential oils. In a museum of Taxila was a preserved distillation apparatus which Dr. Paolo Rovesti discovered on and expedition he took to Pakistan in 1975. To him the discovery suggests that the Arabs revived and improved the process that 4000 years previous had been discovered. At the time of the crusades, rose water was a most popular scent and it was brought to the west along with several other exotic essences. At this time the distillation method was also brought to the west. During the Middle Ages aromatic plants and herbs were scattered on floors and bouquets of herbs were carried. This was in protection against the plague and other infectious diseases. Using their own native herbs like lavender, sage, and rosemary the Europeans began to experiment with the making of these different oils. Throughout the years between 1470- 1670 many publications of herbal and oils were written. Some included illustrations, such as the Great herbal which was published in 1526.Although aromatherapy was not widespread in the 1990s through research and clinical trials it has gain more respect within the medical community. However an increase in public interest it has caused more dangerous to have emerged  with commercialization. More and more people are interested in holistic therapies and wanting to embrace all things natural.


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