The and enabled the formation of the Israeli

The British mandate of Palestine was published in 1922; this
gave the Zionist movement even more momentum, and forced the indigenous Arabs
of Palestine to organize politically. Britain declined the Palestinian’s
argument that the mandate violated their national independence, meanwhile,
Zionists continued to migrate to Palestine. Ultimately, Britain prepared to
leave Palestine as a Jewish and Arab state; this led to war between the
opposing sides. Foreign involvement largely contributed to the displacement of
thousands of Arab people from their homes after the establishment of Israel in
1948. Displeased with the British Mandate, The Arab Executive Committee called
for a boycott of it in 1933; as frustrations grew, this ultimately led to the
Arab Revolt in 1936. Started by armed Arab militants who were led by
Palestinian nationalist Sheikh ‘Izz al-Din al-Qassim, this revolt began by
killing two British police officers. The British quickly crushed this
rebellion, resulting in the death of 1000 Arabs. They also eradicated Arab
leadership groups by either deporting or arresting its members. Britain’s
eventual withdrawal from its mandate responsibility in Palestine was caused in
large part by the failure to adequately manage its policy of dual-obligation.
Yet the Second World War served as the catalyst which forced Britain’s
departure and enabled the formation of the Israeli state and partition of
Palestine in 1948. Clifford argues; “the Arab nationalism that Britain had
engendered for putting out the Turks was in conflict with the Jewish
Nationalism it had made functional in order to win the war in Europe”. This
resulted in pervasive civil unrest, forcing the League of Nations to form the
Peel Commission in 1937; it proposed an end to “the social engineering project
of mixing Jews and Arabs” suggesting setting “up a very small Jewish state –
from which the Arabs would be cleared out” instead. When the Second World War
began the likelihood of this policy being implemented became more probable.
This was because of Adolph Hitler’s decision to form the Holocaust, thus
increasing the necessity for an independent Jewish state in Palestine. This
therefore became the main priority of many Zionists. Britain had to deal with
pressure from The Jewish Agency to fulfil their request of equipping and
training them to fight the Germans. Despite considering the consequences this
would have if the Zionists and Arabs eventually came to war, the British
decided to comply. Another White Paper was sent out by Britain in 1939 which
reassessed their Palestinian policy. The commission stated; “His Majesty’s
Government therefore now declare unequivocally that it is not part of their
Policy that Palestine should become a Jewish State”. This came as a surprise to
the Zionists as it was contradictory to what was stated in the Balfour
Declaration and stated that Britain’s “best endeavours” could no longer be
borrowed to the facilitation of a Jewish State in Palestine. Nevertheless, the
policy of dual-obligation in Britain was still very much characterized by its ambiguous
and inconsistent nature. Once again Britain had made two contradictory promises
to the Arabs and Zionists in the lead up to another epic war. The Peel
Commission in 1937 recommended partitioning Palestine while the White Paper in
1939 claimed Britain had no intent of pursuing a Jewish independent state in
Palestine. Cleveland and Bunton argue that the eventual formation of the state
of Israel came down to three phases; the first being the Zionists revolts
against the British Mandate, the intercommunal war between the Arabs and Jewish
communities in Palestine (1945-1947) and the war between Israel and the Arab
states in 1948. Regardless of any claims Britain may have made, the ambiguous
and inconsistent nature of their policies eventually assisted the Zionists in
defeating the Arabs which allowed for the formation of the state of Israel.
Britain armed and trained the Zionists militant organizations and in turn
assisted them in their expansion of power during the intercommunal war period
(1945-1947). Subsequent to Britain’s armament initiative the Zionists
re-directed their attention towards pushing the British out of Palestine so
that they could pursue a military takeover of the region. The eventual first
Prime Minister of Israel, David Ben-Gurion proclaimed; “We shall fight with
Great Britain in this war as if there was no White Paper, and we shall fight
the White Paper as if there was no War”. The UN sent a commission into
Palestine which lead to the proposal of Resolution 181 in 1946; this suggested
the partitioning of Palestine. This gave the Zionists “a far bigger state than
did the Peel Commission”. Furthermore, the declaration of war ,made by
Ben-Gurion, with the British occurred after the Second World War; which along
with demands by the United States that “100,000 Jewish immigrants be allowed
into Palestine”, gradually exhausted any form of power Britain had in the
region. On May 14th 1948, the British renounced their mandate authority and the
state of Israel was declared by Ben-Gurion. Britain’s failed policy of
dual-obligation empowered the military leadership of Zionist communities whilst
destroying any Palestinian leadership that could oppose them. By doing this,
the conclusion of Britain’s occupation in the Middle East had ultimately
eliminated any chance of a bi-national state in Palestine.