Management is process of working with resources to attain goals and objectives of an organization. This can only be achieved through working with human resource, and proper planning and good supervision of all the processes involved. The organizational processes include marketing, transportation, accounts, manufacture of goods and delivery.
Therefore, this paper focuses on the four functions of management, which are: planning, leading, organizing, and controlling. They are important in any type of organization including manufacturing, distribution, and service organizations. However, the following paragraphs define the functions of management in relation to manufacturing organizations.
Planning is a function in management which means thinking ahead about the future of the organization and actions to be taken. It is an organization of activities tasks to be performed, and it determines who is to do a certain task, how the task should be done, and where it should be done.
Planning reflects on human resources and physical resources to get valuable contribution, control, and the right regulation. It is the best function because when proper plans are laid down it enables others to carry out managerial functions perfectly to achieve the set goals (Bateman & Snell, 2009, p.19).
In planning, there should be creation of objectives such as goals and also the formation of planning grounds. Since manufacturing organizations deal with procedural standards of creating products, planning enables employees not to turn away from the set goals and hence, they follow each step in a systematic manner. The courses of actions should be laid down, which entails the advantages, disadvantages, and the consequences. Witzel (2008, p.96) affirms that secondary plans should be reflected on.
These are the subordinate plans that support the main plan which includes the budgets, timetables, and processes which helps with the program of manufacturing of goods. Cooperation of implementation of these plans should be assured by involving the employees together with the management in the planning process. Lastly, there should be a follow-up of the plans implemented.
The second management function that follows planning is organizing. In this function, authority and responsibility is defined and harmonization of human resource, monetary resource, and material resource gets into action.
Tasks which are to be performed, such as stock control, keeping records, and putting accounts in order are recognized. For instance, manufactures of physical products such as cars must exercise stock control to avoid fluctuations in demand.
Likewise, sorting out the organization activities into small groups or dividing a large department into small departments with similar tasks is important in a manufacturing organization.
Consequently, when the departments have been set, it is the role of the manager to delegate authority to people. Managerial positions are arranged into a hierarchy, for example, from top management, middle management, and lower management (Bateman and Snell, 2009, p.20).
This brings a smooth flow of processes without duplication, wastage of money, time, and efforts. Relations are set up and each group knows whom to report to, and whom to take orders from.
Third, leading entails persuading people to work hard in their line of duty. It includes mobilizing people and communicating with workers, individually or in teams. Managers in manufacturing organizations teach, direct and watch over how the employees carry out their given tasks to achieve the set objectives and goals. This is where the manager supervises each individual’s performance and sees into it that the tasks are performed well.
Inactive individuals are identified and actions are taken such as replacement because supervising human beings is difficult. Motivation and communication are essential in this stage because individuals are able to give their opinions and experiences (Bateman & Snell, 2009, p.20).
Finally, controlling is the management function of overseeing work procedures and making necessary modifications. The executives confirm whether the processes are in agreement with the set goals. If they find any deviation from the set plans, they take the best actions (Bateman & Snell, 2009, p.19).
In a manufacturing company, the actual performance of any process is compared with the normal performance and this is done by managers in all levels. Controlling and planning are interrelated because managers cannot plan without controlling and vice versa.
Usually, planning is important in the manufacturing of goods because processes are examined to ensure fulfillment and consistency of goods. Control examines the quality of goods and processes because changes in processes affects the quality of goods.
There has to be enough labour force to carry out procedures, especially when goods are on high demand and the tasks performed by the employees are examined. Deviations to procedures are examined by the managers with proper organization which entails delegation of tasks and responsibilities in manufacture of goods (Mejia, Balkin, & Cardy, 2006).
In conclusion, management functions create a good working environment for employees and cooperation within the workforce. Job positions and functions performed by each are made clear.
A manager can make free decisions such as adoption of new processes; this brings about flexibility in an organization and proper and effective ways of the production of goods. Therefore, manufacturing organizations depend on the four functions of management to make high quality products.
Bateman, T.S & Snell, S.A. (2009). Management: Leading and Collaborating in the Competitive World (8th ed.). New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies.
Mejia, L. G., Balkin, D. B. & Cardy L. R. (2006). Management: People, Performance, Change. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Witzel, M. (2003). Fifty Key Figures in Management. California: Routledge.