The way of prisoner life, occurring from the

The final
deprivation is the deprivation of security, Sykes explains this as the
infliction of intimacy with violent and aggressive men within the prisons e.g.
the company of rapists, murderers etc. Due to men being in prison altogether,
sexual abuse is something that happens a lot. This can make prisoners anxious
because they feel that they need to stand up to threats that are made against
them as it is a test of their ‘manhood’ (Anderson, 2016).

Although prisons
don’t necessarily make people go ‘crazy’, the thought of being locked up and
being told when you can and can’t do something is daunting. Not everybody who
is released from prison are psychologically damaged by it but very few people
are completely unchanged by the prison experience.

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Not only
does prison change people’s perception of the world, it also requires them to
change their behaviours, attitudes and language in order to follow rules of the
prison and rules by prisoners. The term “institutionalisation” is used to
explain how prisoners are shaped from the environment which they live in, in
this case, prisons. It can also be explained as the negative psychological
effects of being in prison. The process of institutionalisation is the process
of the patterns of prison life merging into a prisoner’s way of thinking,
feeling and acting. These adaptations of prisoners are a normal way of prisoner
life, occurring from the unnatural and abnormal conditions of life within
prison. institutionalisation happens gradually, like any other change,
therefore, prisoners who serve a short-term sentence don’t tend to be institutionalised
however, long-term prisoners do. There are seven psychological adaptations
during the process of institutionalisation, this process can include all or
some of the seven adaptations (Haney, 2001).

The first
adaptation is the dependence on institutional structure and contingencies, over
time prisoners adjust to prison life and become dependent on the prison
structure and how the prison makes decisions for them rather than the prisoner
making decisions for themselves.

Secondly,
hypervigilance, interpersonal distrust and suspicion, prisoners learn to become
hypervigilant and alert of the signs which could result in a threat or personal
risk. They also don’t trust many people within the prison, as many prisoners
take advantage of weaknesses shown, therefore distrust and suspicion is a
result of this.

Thirdly,
emotional over-control, alienation and psychological distancing. Prisoners struggle
to control their emotional reactions to events happening therefore emotional
over-control and lack of spontaneity can occur as a result of this. Strong and
aggressive prisoners tend to prey on the weak prisoners, being weak in prison
is a disadvantage so many prisoners try to not be weak or show emotion.

Fourthly,
social withdrawal and isolation, some prisoners feel safer if they don’t
interact with anybody else and keep themselves to themselves, trusting no-one
and interacting with less people as possible, long-term prisoners tend have
this adaptation from prison.

Fifthly, incorporation
of exploitative norms of prison culture, there are formal rules made from the
prison system which prisoners have to follow and informal rules which prisoners
have made themselves. A lot of prisoners follow both rules and norms in order
to stay out of trouble from the prison and prisoners.

Sixthly,
diminished sense of self-worth and personal value. Due to prisoners being deprived
of basic privacy rights they lose control over normal aspects of human life
which people on the outside wouldn’t take for granted.

Lastly,
post-traumatic stress reactions to the pains of imprisonment. For some prisoners,
they find prison life extremely hard and this can result in post-traumatic
stress disorder.

Not only
does prison change people’s perception of the world, it also requires them to
change their behaviours, attitudes and language in order to follow rules of the
prison and rules by prisoners. The term “institutionalization” is used to
explain how prisoners are shaped from the environment which they live in, in
this case, prisons. It can also be explained as the negative psychological
effects of being in prison. The process of institutionalisation is the process
of the patterns of prison life merging into a prisoner’s way of thinking,
feeling and acting (Haney, 2001).

Accredited offending behaviour programmes are a serious
of activities which work with offenders in order to reduce reoffending. These programmes
vary in length and complexity and are targeted towards the risk and need. In order
to place an offender onto the right programme they assess what techniques and
interventions are appropriate for the offender and what tools are reliable in
order to help each offender. The prison system keeps a close eye on the
programmes and has rigorous monitoring on them, as well as an evaluation of the
impact in which is made by the programme on reoffending (Ministry of Justice,
2017).

Some
current Offender Behaviour Programmes

 

The prison system is able to deliver a pathway to rehabilitate
prisoners, for long-term sentences prisoners, they are able to work through the
prison system and eventually be in open conditions. This allows them to be
released on temporary licence, if their application is accepted and then allows
them to be released back into the community (Wild, 2014).

In an inspection from the Justice Inspectorates (2013) it
was shown that the majority of life sentenced prisoners had formed positive
relationships with their offender’s managers and did not reoffend, as they were
able to lead useful and productive lives after they were released due to the help
that they had on offending behaviour programmes. 

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