This Anti-depressants will help to improve people’s moods,

This essay is going to be talking about
how psychological perspectives are equally valid and relevant in the treatment
of depression, what each individual perspective is about and how they are going
to be applied to depression. The biological side of depression; medication,
cognitive so cognitive Behavioural Therapy, the Humanist approach to client
centered therapy, the awareness of the historical development of the approaches,
and the strengths and weaknesses. “Depression is a mental health condition
where an individual has a low mood for a very long time. They get a feeling of
worthlessness or guilt almost every day, thoughts of death or suicide,
significant weight loss or weight gain, and/or may lose pleasure or interest in
activities that they do in everyday life” (WebMD
Boots. Anon, (2009).


The Biological approach focuses on the
behaviours that are genetic and have an adaptive or evolutionary purpose. This
can be genes, hormones and brain structures that influence our behaviour and
everyday life. The neurotransmitter dysfunction to the biological approach
would explain that depression suggests that individuals who suffer from
depression will have an imbalance of a low level of Serotonin in their brain (Greenlaw, n.d).

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There is a way to help raise the serotonin
levels in the brain and this would-be medication. The medication for depression
would be anti-depressants. These are a type of medication that is used to treat
clinical depression or to prevent it from recurring. They will help by balancing
the chemical neurotransmitters in the brain. Anti-depressants will help to
improve people’s moods, help them sleep better, increase their appetite and
concentration. By being able to increase the neurotransmitters they can disrupt
pain signals that are sent by nerves and therefore, help to decrease long-term
pain (Nemade, 2007), (Anon, n.d)


The drugs
that were discovered first for anti-depressants were the monoamine oxidase
inhibitors and tricyclic anti-depressants. Anti-depressants have now been
adapted with Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs), Sertraline and
Paroxetine. Anti-depressants have been adapted further and can be used for
other mental health issues, such as fluvoxamine to treat obsessive-compulsive
disorder. Today, there has been more medication for depression introduced
called serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). The SSRIs have
been adapted and aren’t only used for depression and obsessive-compulsive
disorder but also panic disorder, social phobia, and anxiety. A strength of
anti-depressants. SSRIs, tricyclics and SNRIs is that they’re easy to use, have
less side effects and aren’t found to be fatal in overdose. The SNRIs have helped
many patients that have responded well to these but no other antidepressant
drugs, these are more effective than SSRIs in depression. A weakness of SSRIs
is that there is no evidence to show that they are more effective than other
types of antidepressants (Butcher, Mineka
and Hooley, 2014), (Anon. n.d).


The Cognitive Approach is to
understand the human cognition by viewing the behaviour of individuals that act
differently to cognitive tasks. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is a type
of talking therapy that focuses on the individual’s negative thoughts and feelings.
CBT can help individuals to deal with overwhelming problems in a more positive
way and decreasing the issue with a more manageable tactic. CBT can help a
person with depression by helping them to recognize their negative patterns of
their thoughts, evaluate their effectiveness and replace them with a positive
way of thinking. CBT can also help by encouraging individuals to speak about
how they’re feeling and helping them feel better about themselves. The more the
individuals think about the positives, the more it will boost their mood.


Cognitive therapy from Beck’s was
first developed for the treatment of depression and was then discovered for
anxiety disorders. In depression, individuals will be persuaded to make biased
understandings of themselves, their world and their future. In the cognitive
therapy, the clients will be made more aware of the connection between their methods
of thinking and their emotional responses. The individuals that suffer from
depression are first taught to recognise their own thoughts, keep records of
them and their emotional reactions. The therapist will help them to identify
the obvious mistakes in their thinking and will help the client to learn to
challenge the validity of these thoughts (Butcher,
Mineka and Hooley, 2014).


There has been an adaptation to Beck’s
cognitive therapy and it can be used today for mental health disorders. Today,
CBT can be used for a broad range of conditions, including; eating disorders,
obesity, personality disorders, substance abuse and even schizophrenia. This
therapy mechanism is still being used today to help healthy people to cope with
everyday stress and helping them to prevent from developing mental health
disorders. A strength of this therapy is that it can prevent people from having
relapses in their mental health. It can produce dramatic results in the
treatment of depression. The cognitive behavioural therapies are now the
treatment of choice for bulimia. This approach can be used for the treatment of
behaviour disorder in children, substance abuse and personality disorders in
the future. A weakness of this is whether the effects of the cognitive
treatments are the results of the cognitive changes that the theorists suggest
that they might be. For depression, it appears that there could be a
long-lasting outcome for as long as the cognitive theory remains (Butcher, Mineka and
Hooley, 2014).



The Humanist approach is the
psychological perspective that looks at the study of the whole person. This is
where we have freedom and our own reasonability to be able to control our own
behaviour, reflect on our own problems, make our own choices and take positive
action. The client-centered therapy is also known as ‘person-centered
counselling’, where the therapist won’t focus on offering understanding or
guidance, but they will offer empathy, acceptance, and unconditional respect (Martin, 2017). This can help the
clients to feel more encouraged and capable of being able to find their own
solutions to their problems. If the therapist and the client have an accepting
and empathetic relationship, then the client might become a lot more self-aware
and independent. The client-centered therapy can help with depression by
helping individuals to discuss the feelings that will rise in conversation, as
well as helping them to overcome any personal challenges or frustrations.
Therapists can help depression sufferers to think about the positive things in
their lives and help them to feel much happier by speaking about the problems,
their thoughts and feelings that occur (Grumman,
n.d), (Butcher, Mineka and Hooley, 2014).



“The client-centered therapy by Carl Rogers
focuses on the power of the organism to be able to heal itself” (Butcher, Mineka and Hooley, 2014. Pg 654). Rogers
saw this therapy as the process of removing the negatives that people think
about themselves, as well as the believes that they shouldn’t have certain
things, such as hostility. When denying those feelings, they will become unaware
of their reactions. This therapy is used to fix damaged personal relationships,
and several forms of isolation. The client-centered therapists can establish a
psychological climate where the clients can feel accepted, understood, and
valued as a person. To achieve this the therapist will use nondirected
techniques, such as; empathetic reflecting, or repeating the client’s
descriptions of their life difficulties. If this works, then the clients will
feel free and will explore their real thoughts and feelings, and accept the hate
and ugly feelings about themselves (Butcher, Mineka and Hooley, 2014).


This has been adapted and can be used
today for other mental health such as; anxiety, and trauma. This will encourage
people to talk more about their thoughts, feelings and problems to change them
into positives in their lives.  Today
this therapy will help individuals to become themselves, make them feel more
free and help them to explore their feelings in much greater depth. This is
also used today as the more their self-concept becomes reliable with their
experience, they will become more self-accepting, a lot more open to new
experiences and new perspectives, they become more open people with the help of
the therapist. A strength of this is that the therapists will listen to what
the client says and will help them to change the negatives into positives to
give them a better mind set. This can be used for many mental health problems
that people suffer with. A weakness of this is that there is a lack of therapeutic
procedures that have been agreed with that help clients. Another negative is
that there has been no research to prove that this approach can decrease
people’s concepts, decrease their real worth and deny their uniqueness.


different types of therapies and medications can all help with depression and
are valid to help people to speak more about their problems, thoughts and
feelings. These types of treatments are all equally valid and relevant to be
used today for not only depression but other mental health disorders. CBT and client-centered
therapy are the most effective therapies that can be used for mental health today.
This is because it helps people to talk to someone different other than their
family and friends about their problems and replacing the negatives with
positives in a more substantial and beneficial way for them with professional


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