This (p126) so they can validate racialized policies

This chapter aids us to grasp how Britain,
according to James Hampshire (2005), has turned into a multi-racial society against
the wishes of its politicians and a large proportion of its people. Hampshire (2005)
delves into the politics of immigration in post-war Britain and brings to light
how unease about public health service and welfare scrounging impacts government
policy and influences changes made to the law. Hampshire (2005) puts forward
the argument that radical ideas are becoming more prominent in post-war deliberations
about immigration and says that the such deliberations have serious
consequences on our society. He demonstrates clearly in his argument how the
government claims to appeal to the notion of “belonging” (p126) so they can validate
racialized policies put in place to slow down the immigration rates from
previously colonised countries such as Algeria and Morocco. As immigration has been a prominent topic of conversation
on the political agenda over the past decade, Hampshire gives an essential framework
to present-day debates by demonstrating how notions about race, demography and
belonging overlap to shape immigration policy. One
strength which cannot be overlooked in this text is Hampshire’s referencing to a
large wealth of contemporary archival material to back up this argument, his fascinating
analysis alters the way we consider citizenship. I Find it extremely potent how he incorporates
old case studies with recent ones to bridge between historical and contemporary
debates, overall, this create a well-rounded argument.


In her introduction, Marilyn Friedman (2005) outlines the complexity of the term “citizenship”.
She believes it is hard to pinpoint exactly one definition to the word, as she
goes onto stating some definitions: it can be a set of privileges, rights and responsibilities;
however, it can also be seen as a relationship between an individual and the
state, this shows us that political terminology. Although citizenship has been
explored through many discipline there is hardly any exploration of the
relationship between gender and citizenship. This comes to me as a surprise, as we know
that women’s global denial of citizenship has a long history and is still ongoing
to date. With reference to works of influential scholars such as Young.
I. M (1980), Jaguar A. M (2003), Martha Nussbaum (2002), and Sandra Bartky (2001),
Freidman takes a fresh cope in the way she addresses citizenship as she discusses
in depth the relevance of culture and politics in influencing women’s experience
of citizenship. At the heart of the argument in this text is the conceptual problems
and gimmicks which helps to influence the feminist pursuit to give woman full
citizenship status and stop customs, and conditions which extenuate women’s
citizenship in many parts of the world. One prominent example of women’s
citizenship being compromised due to traditions, is in Saudi Arabia where women
are deprived of mundane rights such as Driving. We can see clearly that this is
oppressive of women’s autonomy and citizenship.

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The overarching topic in both readings is the politics of citizenship,
however, both authors take different focal points to their argument about the experience
of citizenship. Hampshire considered the legalities and policies surrounding
immigration while Freidman approaches a more fundamental topic which is gender.



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