Title of US intelligence. In August 2014, the

                                               

 

 

 

 

 

Title

Edward Snowden Ethical Issue

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Name- Dhagash Mineshkumar Bhavsar

Student ID-1111159

Subject code –ICT710

 

 

 

 

 

 

Executive Summary

 

 

                   In June 2013,
the former NSA provider, Edward Snowden, committed the largest and most
destructive classified information in the history of US intelligence. In August
2014, the Chair and Member of the House Standing Committee on Home Affairs
(HPSCI) instructed its staff to conduct a full review of unauthorized
disclosure. The purpose of the review was to allow the committee to explain to
other members of the Congress – and possibly the American people – how this
violation took place, what the US government knows about the author and whether
safety is the defect marked has been corrected.

                   Over the
next 2 year, the citizens committee requested one C of written document in the
Intelligence information Community (IC), they took some information and
gathered some personalization committees, attended Snowden’s background
activities and interview with the major acquaintances and travel to the
National Security Agency in Hawaii. Visit Snowden’s last two work position.
Based on the Snowden-based review, it has been able to remove more than 1500
classified advertisement documents through secure NSA networks, 1.5 trillion
documents received and national security caused by damage.

                   According to (Anon., 2016), the committee’s review did not come to fruition in Russia since it was released on June 23, 2013. Accordingly, the committee has not interviewed any persons identified by the Ministry of Justice as possible. Witnesses in Snowden’s trial, including Snowden himself, nor did the committee ask for any matters that might have taken place before a grand jury. Instead, the IC equipped the committee with other people who had the same knowledge as the possible witnesses. Similarly, committee staff interviewed Snowden’s NSA staff and supervisors. The committee remains confident that Snowden wants to return to the United States to face the Judiciary.

                   Every coin has to side like
that some people says that Edward Snowden is whistle blower and he ran away. On
the other hand some folk says that he did the right thing.

 

Contents
Executive
Summary. 2
List of Abbreviations and
assumptions made: 4
Introduction: 5
Analysis of the situation
using the Doing Ethics Technique: 6
What is going on?. 6
What are the facts?. 6
What are
the issues?. 7
Who is affected?. 7
What are
the ethical issues and implications?. 8
What can be done about
it?. 8
What options are there?. 9
Which option is best –
and why?. 9
Analysis of the situation
from the point of view of an ICT Professional using the ACS Code of Ethics: 10
Conclusions and
Recommendations: 12
Reference list using
Harvard referencing: 13
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

List of Abbreviations and assumptions made:

 

 

There are
some major issues in the world and Edward Snowden is also very big name when it
comes to say about global issue that world notice about it. A subject of
controversy, Snowden has been variously called a hero, a whistle blower, a dissident , a
patriot and a traitor.

 According to (Representatives,
n.d.)Snowden
communicated using encrypted
email and going by the codename “Verax”. He
asked not to be quoted at length for fear of identification by stylometry

In accounts
published in June 2013, interviewers noted that Snowden’s laptop displayed
stickers supporting Internet freedom organizations including the Electronic
Frontier Foundation (EFF) and the Tor Project.

Snowden
stated that he was “neither traitor nor hero. I’m an American.”

Snowden traveled to Hong Kong after working at an NSA facility in Hawaii, and in early June he revealed thousands of NSA secret documents to journalists Glenn Greenwald, Laura Poitras and Ewen MacAskill. The US Department of Justice has filed a lawsuit against Snowden for violating the 1917 spy law and stealing State property. He flew to Moscow, Russia, where he stayed more than a month. The Russian authorities granted him asylum for one year, which was later extended to three years. Since 2016, he still lives in a secret place in Russia, while he seeks asylum elsewhere. His revelations sparked debates about mass surveillance, government secrecy and the balance between national security and privacy.

According
to (CNN, 2017) Ellsberg posted to
his Twitter page: “Edward Snowden has done more for our Constitution in terms
of the Fourth and First Amendment than anyone else I know.              

 

 

 

 

 

Introduction:

 

Edward Snowden (Wikipedia, n.d.)It’s a name that has been in history books for centuries. He is considered a traitor or whistleblower, depending on where you look. Many Americans believe that Edward Snowden is a traitor who sold secrets of the United States aimed at harming the nation. Others believe that he was simply a US citizen who exercised the right to disclose the government for unconstitutional actions

 

Most people are feeling cheated. Recently, the situation is similar, with this difference being a bigger size. Edward Snowden is a technical contractor for the NSA and the CIA. (Wikipedia, n.d.) He has published personal information about millions of people to prove that the US government is registering the communications of their peoples. This renegade has undermined the confidence of the CIA, the NSA and their employers to keep this information secret. Furthermore, it threatens the security of US citizens. Snowden must be kept secret as a technical contractor in the CIA and the NSA. As an employee, he is required to listen to his voice, even if he does not agree. He did not do it this time! “By deciding to unilaterally reveal the NSA’s secret documents, Snowden prohibits all of these things” said David Brooks of The New York Times. His promise as well as his contract. At a time known to the Americans, he betrayed exactly the organization trying to protect the United States By betraying the organizations that the Americans want to protect, Snowden has put us all in danger. “The exposure of the PRISM program, according to which the NSA monitors foreign terrorists on the Internet, and the expiration of a top-secret judicial order that forces Verizon to share call data with the government is extremely damaging to national security , which they did not have on our collection activities, “said Washington Post columnist Marc Theissen. This means that Edward Snowden has released important information about the United States government. Foreign terrorists now know they can be seen in the United States. Terrorists are now more likely to develop strategies to avoid being listened to and monitored. Because Snowden leaked this information, the work of the US government to protect its citizens has become more difficult.                    Edward Snowden has violated the trust the CIA, NSA, and his bosses had in him to keep this information a secret. This means he has put us citizens in danger. Some people think that his spreading of this information is heroic.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Analysis of the situation using
the Doing Ethics Technique:

Edward
Snowden, working at NSA is responsible for what may turn out to be the most
significant leak of classified information in U.S. history. He admitted to
passing classified documents to reporters at The Guardian and The Washington
Post—revealing details of NSA surveillance programs that collect and perform
data mining on hundreds of millions of U.S. phone and Internet traffic records
to identify possible links to known terrorists so after doing this thing some
people think he is whistle blower and some think he is hero so now let’s try to
solve via using Ethics Technique.

What is going on?

 Because of Snowden’s activity it caused enormous damage to national security and to the vastnessMost of the documents he has stolen have nothing to do with programs that affect individual interests of privacy, belong more to the military, the defense? And intelligence programs Great interest for the opponents of (australia, 2013)America.

 

Snowden
admitted to passing classified documents to reporters at The Guardian and The
Washington Post and after went to Russia he insist that he didn’t provide that
data to anyone but  in June 2016 Russian
chairman conceded that Edward Snowden had provide data to Russian government.
So like that here too much controversies are being created.

Is Snowden
a whistle-blower or a traitor and should be punished it depends on the person
to person.

What are the facts?

 

–       
Snowden was working at NSA

–       
He claimed
to have left A-y basic training because of broken legs when in fact he washed
out because of shin splints.

–       
Snowden has a classified information
to media

–       
Snowden (Guardian, n.d.)Talk with media
member with encrypted mail so not one can trace him.

–       
He was able
to remove more than 1.5million classified documents from secure NSA networks, and
the 1.5 million documents and the damage their removal caused to national
security.

–       
It was one of the most significant
leak of the country

–       
NSA use surveillance to collect data
of US citizens two weeks before
Snowden began mass downloads of classified documents, he was reprimanded after
engaging in a workplace spat with NSA managers.

–       
After he
had compiled a large store of documents, Snowden told his NSA supervisor that
he needed a leave of absence to undergo treatment for epilepsy, a condition
recently diagnosed

–       
Snowden
said (story, 2015)”I’m willing to
sacrifice my former life because I can’t in good conscience allow the U.S.
government to destroy privacy, internet freedom and basic liberties for people
around the world with this massive surveillance machine they’re secretly
building,” after the fact, in a series of interviews given in his Hong
Kong hotel room.

–       
Snowden was
not a whistle blower (Representatives, n.d.) Under the law,
publicly revealing classified information does not qualify someone as a whistle
blower.

 

What
are the issues?

–       
Snowden leaked the information
from NSA he stole 1.5 million documents.

–       
Snowden fled the country
because of the thread that US government sent him to jail he ran away from USA.

–       
The information leaked was a
highly classified. If the information can go to terrorist then it might be big
issue for USA.

–       
Government keep tracing the
Phone calls of every person who lives in US without taking permission of
citizens.

–       
Privacy is not there if the
personal document are revealed to public. And it cause big issue to country.

Who is affected?

–       
The main impact of this issue is on to
stakeholders.

–       
The US citizen who lived in democratic
country and the same country hiding data from them so now they aware of that
what government doing with folk.

–       
Second who got affected is government
because if you have to make transparency with the people who gave the power to
carry forward country’s growth.

–       
Media is also got affected by this but
positively. They are the one who became the medium for sending the message from
Snowden.

–       
If the data gone to the terrorist so
they know the secret data about US government so they might know the weakness
and they attack on that so this is very major issue.

What are the ethical issues and implications?

 

According to Snowden (news, 2013) decided to leave the US and he told the Guardian: “I don’t want to
live in a society that does these sort of things… I do not want to live in a
world where everything I do and say is recorded.”

In total, 52% say they are “very worried” or “slightly concerned” about US government data and communications oversight, compared to 46% who say they are “not very worried” or “not worried at all “. Monitoring. First (kerr, 2015), the rest of Mr. Snowden’s revelations never satisfied the characteristics of the original revelations in Section 215, many of Snowden’s stories filled only details of programs we already knew. Naturally, the stories were written to create the impression of a scandal. But many times they’ve just told us that the NSA is doing pretty much what you suspected.Second, prosperity and a variety of stories have become difficult to establish a proper response. A single narrative may lead to a single reaction. But hundreds of different stories that may or may not suggest a problem depending on the perspective, and describe the various aspects of different programs, Snowden’s supporters think that each story gives more fuel to the same fire. But I think it came from many people, because hundreds of clouds of smoke, each of which may be detected by investigation, are caused by a fire that is hard to comprehend as a whole.

What can be done about
it?                 

 

First, they confirmed that the US government. Routine collection of telephone records of millions of Americans who do not have terrorism without receiving any court order. Thanks to Snowden and the Guardian and the Washington Post, we now have reason to doubt the truth of this testimony. In the words of Snowden (Newyorker, 2013) “The NSA has a built infrastructure, which allows you to intercept almost everything with this ability, the vast majority of human communication is automatically executed without visa. If I wanted to see the email or phone his wife made. I have everything to see, the use of interception. I can see your emails, passwords, phone records, credit cards. ” This is the valuable role that whistleblowers play in a free society, and this is what, in each case against weigh the breach of trust they commit and the potential harm that their revelations may produce. In some cases, the interests of the State may prevail. Here, however, the scales are clearly inclined in favor for him. Snowden has done a good job the people who chose you give transparency between the citizen and the government. That government is stealing your personal data from you and without knowing.

What options are there?

 

The first option
will be is that government has to free him for this crime. So he can return to
his country and live his life like normal person.

Second option is
that government should negotiate with local people for tracing there personal
data without any agreement and knowing to citizen of US.

Third option is
that government should accept their fault for surveillance on that personal
document.

And the last one
for those who think Snowden was wrong. Government should punish him make a
settlement with him.

 

Which option is best – and why?

              

                   Snowden faces serious espionage allegations. If you truly believe that anything speaks about the so-called American surveillance threat, your best option is to go home and face them. The US justice system is impeccable and beyond political control. (australian, 2013)Would guarantee a fair process. Going home would be much better than avoiding the transit area of ??a Moscow airport asylum in countries that in some cases have a history of human rights that are the antithesis to it. They claim to believe.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Analysis of the situation from the
point of view of an ICT Professional using the ACS Code of Ethics:

There are six points from which we have to follow while doing
any analysis regarding information and communication technology.

1)    
The primacy of public interest.

2)    
The enhancement of quality of
life

3)    
Honesty

4)    
Competence

5)    
Professional development

6)    
Professionalism

 

In June 2013, former NSA contractor Edward Snowden perpetrated the
largest and most damaging Public release of classified information in U.S.
intelligence history. Now let’s try to see is he done correct job or Snowden
has broken the rules of U.S.

 

In this
case every person has different way of thinking but some of them take it
positively and some of take that negatively. Let’s see how it show the interest
on public.

Ed Snowden was a great service in this country: there was someone who had a
good job and a good life in Hawaii, but everything broke down to tell us what
the NSA is doing for us in the name of national security. He did it for his
personal gain and personal effort because he kept to the logic: governments should
not talk to their people

I think anyone helping to strengthen the workings of democracy should be rewarded. His prize should be, I don’t know, perhaps something as unglamorous and hard to display on his mantelpiece as a presidential pardon. That would be nice.What he did amounted to the greatest issue of legitimate American secrets in the history of US nation. If Snowden wants to come home, and that’s his choice, I think he should face the full force of the law. Then he would be able to mount his defences. I would not be supportive of a public interest defences however, because the American people declare some things to be legal and some things to be illegal, and don’t anoint the individual citizen to decide whether that’s a good or a bad idea. Like that every person to person the review of him is changes. 

Snowden was able to remove more than 1.5 million
classified documents from secure NSA networks, what the 1.5 million documents
contained, and the damage their removal caused to national security and he also
inform to US civilians that government tracing all the personal documents of
people and without informing to them. Is he honest? According to Snowden he
wanted to tell every people that what’s going on behind them. Because of this
he done that issue. If he stays in US, government will kept him and put him behind
the jail. Because of this fear he ran away from United States. Snowden is
whistle blower but he did good thing for people.

However, (bbc, 2014) he reveals detailed information showing fraud, waste, abuse or other illegal activity in the appropriate manner the police or security personnel, including members of Congress, make someone Complaint and provide them with critical protection. Contrary to his public statements .He emphasized many NSA documents on what he thought was one the commission found no evidence that Snowden took the formal initiative to deliver American intelligence activities – legal, moral or otherwise – for everyone US Government, despite many ways to do it. Snowden knew it Avenues. His only attempt to contact an NSA agent revolved around a question about him the legal precedence of executive orders and their only contact with the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) The inspector general (IG) has questioned his disagreements with his leaders training and maintenance of information technology specialists.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Conclusions and Recommendations:

 This country is deeply and evenly shared about the values ??and harms that came from Snowden’s Disclosures, as much of the world as a heroic figure. History will judge Snowden with the generosity of distance. In this country too, as Snowden himself said, “The Congress, the courts, and the president all changed their policies as a result of his disclosures.” in many reforms that Snowden criticized were unconstitutional. A balanced disposition of his case makes good sense.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reference list using Harvard referencing:

 

Anon., 2016. U.S. House Permanent Select Committee
on Intelligence Unclassified Summary of Report on Snowden Disclosures. Online

Available at: https://publicintelligence.net/us-hpsci-snowden/

australia, B. I., 2013.
Everybody Is Right About Edward Snowden. Online
Available at: https://www.businessinsider.com.au/everybody-is-right-about-edward-snowden-2013-6?r=US=T

australian, T., 2013. Snowden’s
best option is home. Online
Available at: http://www.theaustralian.com.au/opinion/editorials/snowdens-best-option-is-home/news-story/4142f26eb656c3dea1c893ef4e1c4c10

bbc, 2014. NSA-GCHQ
Snowden leaks: A glossary of the key terms. Online
Available at: http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-25085592

CNN, 2017. Edward
Snowden Fast Facts. Online
Available at: http://edition.cnn.com/2013/09/11/us/edward-snowden-fast-facts/index.html

Guardian, T., n.d. How
Edward Snowden went from loyal NSA contractor to whistleblower. Online
Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/feb/01/edward-snowden-intelligence-leak-nsa-contractor-extract

kerr, o., 2015. Edward
Snowden’s impact. Online
Available at: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/volokh-conspiracy/wp/2015/04/09/edward-snowdens-impact/?utm_term=.644a9539efdc

news, b., 2013. Profile:
Edward Snowden. Online
Available at: http://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-22837100

Newyorker, T., 2013. Why
Edward Snowden Is a Hero. Online
Available at: https://www.newyorker.com/news/john-cassidy/why-edward-snowden-is-a-hero

Representatives, U. h.
o., n.d. Executive Summary ofReview of the Unauthorized Disclosures ofFormer
National Security Agency Contractor Edward Snowden. Issue 15 sep,2016.

story, B. t., 2015.
Quick facts Edward Snowden. p. 3.

Wikipedia, n.d. Edward
Snowden. Online
Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_Snowden

 

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