Translation their native language knowledge to their newly

Translation
of Collocations

 Introduction:
A collocation is a set of words that always come together.  Meanwhile, collocations are simply almost a
range of two or three words used together in order to make a meaningful
expression that instantly understood by a language users. They are regular
fixed combinations of verbs, nouns, adjectives and adverbs. 

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It is usually
that one word may produce different collocations, however, each derived
collocation is not replaced by other word of the same set. Examples: Big
–Large –Great Here, we should abide by the collocation rules; so as the
structure and construction seems natural and not awkward. Thus, examples
of  the natural collocations of the above
set as mentioned in Oxford Advanced Dictionary (2010:130) ” Big: Man –house
–car –boy –dog –smile –problem –surprise –question –difference . Large: Numbers
–part –area –room –company –eyes –family –volume –population .Other
examples include: Do: the dishes, laundry, good, harm, homework. Make: fortune,
mistake, appointment, friends, progress, money, noise, toast, sense.

Lexical aspects
of language such as collocations are not usually thoroughly studied ;
conversely , huge amount of study investigation has been devoted to
orthographic , grammatical , and phonological aspects of language . Thus , such
negligence of lexical aspects can lead non –native language learners to wrongly
relay their native language knowledge to their newly learned /acquired language
.

 Explanation and Definition of Collocations:

 Understanding and then translating collocation
cause some troubles to most non –native speakers ; it is clear when one or both
component words move from their primary sense . Barnwell (1980:55) explains ”
Collocation is concerned with the co –occurrence of words; with what other word
does a word usually occur? With what other words may it acceptably occur ?”.   Maxwell and Heylen (1994:299) point out that
collocations consist of two elements ” the base and the collocate ” .They
further provide examples as (commit a crime ) , where the noun (crime
) is the base and the verb(commit ) is the collocate ; other
examples include:- commit suicide and commit a mistake. Firth , (1957 ) defines
collocations as ”the company words keep ” .He(ibid) observes ”meaning by
collocation is an abstraction at the syntagmatic level and is not directly
concerned with the conceptual or idea approach to the meaning of words ”  . Meanwhile Palmer (1976:94) , agrees with
Firth above indicating collocations  ”
You shall know a word by the company it keeps ” .  that 
For example, in English, we usually say ‘do my homework’. It’s
grammatically correct  to say ‘answer my
homework’ or ‘write my homework’, but both of these seem  completely strange. A native English speaker
would never say ‘answer my homework’. 
The expression ‘do my homework’ sounds natural and native.  Cowie (1981:224) defines collocation as ”a
composite unit which permits the substitutability of items for at least one of
its constituent elements (the sense of other elements or elements , remaining constant
).”

It’s hard and
demanding task to list all  collocations,
because there are very numerous. Actually , 
almost every word in English has other words that it usually goes with.
Leech (1974:20) introduces what he terms as

”collocative  meaning which consists of the associations a
word acquires on account of the  meaning
of words which tend to occur in its environment”.

Cruise , (1986)
defines collocations as ” sequences of lexical items which habitually co
–occur , but which are nonetheless fully transparent in the sense that each
lexical constituent is also a semantic constituent ”.

Palmer in his
dictionary (1938: iv ) defines collocations as ” Successions of two or more
words the meaning of which can hardly be deduced from a knowledge of their
component words ” . He keeps giving more examples as: throw away, to say
the least of it, as a matter of fact, and give somebody up for lost.

Hatim (2001:228)
defines collocations as ”The way in which words are found together
conventionally ”.

Benson (1986:61)
States that collocations are ” A group of words that occurs repeatedly i.e.
recurs in a language” 

On the hand ,
Robins (1964:66) indicates collocations as ” The habitual association of a
word in a language with other particular words in sentences” .

Hunston , (2002
:12 ) confirms the meaning of collocations as: ” The statistical tendency
of words to co –occur ”.

In Wikipedia ,
the free encyclopedia site , collocation is defined as ”In a corpus
linguistics , a sequence of words or terms that co –occur more often than would
be expected by chance : In phraseology , collocation is a sub –type of phraseme
, an example of a phraseological collocation as propounded by Michael Haliday
‘is the expression strong tea’ . While the same meaning could conveyed by the roughly
equivalent ‘powerful tea’ this expression is considered incorrect by English
speakers.  

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